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Centre lathe

• The Centre Lathe is used to manufacture cylindrical
shapes from a range of materials including; steels and
plastics.
• Components that assemble to make an car engine work
have been made using lathes.
• The Lathe may be operated by people (manual lathes)
or computer controlled lathes (CNC machines) that
have been programmed to carry out a particular task.

.A basic manual centre lathe • The lathe is controlled by a person turning handles on the top slide and cross slide in order to make a part.

Lathe Parts • Lathe bed  Made from rigid cast Iron  Accurately machined slideways  Slideways guide carriage & tailstock  Headstock on upper end of the lathe bed .

Lathe parts • Headstock  Holds lathe spindle and gears  Chuck is fitted to spindle  Spindle is hollow for long bars .

Lathe parts • Tailstock  Can be moved along slideways  Can be clamped in any location  Inside tapered to hold drill chuck .

Lathe parts • Carriage  Moves along bed between tailstock and headstock  Saddle – across the lathe  Apron – hangs down in front .

Lathe parts • Cross Slide  Fitted on the Saddle  Moves cutting tool at right angles to lathe bed .

Lathe parts • Top Slide (Compound slide)  Fitted to top of Cross slide  Carries toolpost and cutting tool  Can rotate to any angle  Is used to turn tapers .

Lathe parts • Feed shaft  Used to move the Carriage automatically • Lead screw  Used when screw cutting on the lathe .

Lathe Parts • Three Jaw Chuck  Self centring  Holds round and hexagonal work  3 jaws are connected  Jaws are stamped 1.2 & 3 and fitted in order  Chuck key used to open .

Lathe parts • Toolpost  Fitted on top slide and carries the cutting tool or the cutting tool holder  Can adjust the height on some types  Can carry 4 different tool holders .

left hand and straight .Lathe parts • Tool holders  Used for holding cutting tool bits  Available in Right hand.

• Cutting Tools  Can be High Speed Steel held in tool holders  Can be also Ceramic (Tungsten carbide) bits held directly in toolpost .

Cutting Tool Angle • Clearance angle  Ensures only the cutting edge of the tool touches the work  Too much clearance causes chatter .

Cutting tool angle • Rake Angle  Allows the chip being cut to flow out  Changing the rake changes the power used in cutting and the heat generated  Large rake = soft ductile materials  Small rake = hard brittle materials .

Cutting tool angle • Tool bits are held in holders at an angle of about 15° .

Cutting tools • We can put different shapes on the High speed tool bits to cut different shapes on the workpiece .

Lathe operations Facing off Parallel Turning Parallel Turning .

Parallel Turning • The tool moved parallel to the work and cylindrical shapes are formed • Also known as sliding .

Parallel Turning • The student can Parallel turn the work on the lathe manually or use the automatic traverse option .

Facing off • The tool is moved at right angles to the work using the cross slide • Flat surfaces are produced .

Knurling • A knurling tool is used to press a pattern onto a round section. • This provide a grip for the round part e.g. Screwdriver . • The pattern is normally used as a grip for a handle.

Knurling .

Parting off • If the student wants to cut off the part they have turned. they can use the hacksaw and a vice or use the parting off tool on the lathe. .

Setting the tool height • The cutting tool on the lathe must be set to the exact centre of the work-piece • We use the centre of the tailstock to guide us to the correct height .

Screw-cutting on the lathe • Lathes are also used to cut threads in round bars • These threads take up different profiles e. . • These threads can be seen on bench vices.g iso (60°) ACME etc. lathes etc.

CNC Lathes .

CNC machines can be extremely large.• In Industry it is not efficient or profitable to make everyday products by hand. then it is processed by the computer and made using the CNC machine. • On a CNC machine it is possible to make hundreds of the same item in a day. • First a design is drawn using design software. . • In industry.

Taper Turning .LATHE OPERATIONS Producing a Flat Surface Producing a Cylindrical Surface .

Radius Turning Attachment Drilling on a Lathe Parting Off / Under Cutting .