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ACID ATTACK ON

CONCRETE

Presented by

Narasimhareddy komali

PRESENTATION OUTLINE

 Introduction
 Attack due toH2SO4
 Attack due to HNO3
 Attack due to CH3COOH
 Attack due to HCL
 Attack due toH2CO3
 Repair to attack
 Conclusion
 references

INTRODUCTION
 Concretes made of Portland cement (OPC) are highly

alkaline with pH values normally above 12.5 and are
not easily attacked by acidic solutions.
 At pH values lower than 12.5 portlandite is the first

constituent starting dissolution
 If pH decreases to values lower than stability limits of

cement hydrates, then the corresponding hydrate loses
calcium and decomposes to amorphous hydrogel
 The

final

reaction

products

of

acid

attack

are

the

corresponding calcium salts of the acid as well as hydrogels
of silicium, aluminum, and ferric oxides

ACID ATTACK

WEAK ACIDS
 Acetic acid
 Carbolic acid
 Carbonic
acid

STRONG ACIDS
 Hydrochloric
acid
 Sulphuric acid
 Sulphurous acid

 Lactic acid

 Nitric acid

 Phosphoric

 Hydroflouric

acid
 Tannic acid

acid
 Hydrobromic

SULPHURIC ACID ATTACK  Sulphuric acid attack causes extensive formation of gypsum in the regions close to the surfaces.  The chemical reactions involved in sulphuric acid attack on cement based materials can be given as follows:   Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4  CaSO4.3H2O + H2SO4  CaSO4.2H2O + Si(OH)4 . and tends to cause disintegrating mechanical stresses which ultimately lead to spalling and exposure of the fresh surface.2H2O 3CaO.2SiO2.

LOS ANGELES SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM Deterioration of concrete pipe from H2S attack .

 Sulphuric acid is highly reactive and reacts with calcium compounds to form gypsum which causes the concrete to soften. ultimately leading to roof collapse.+ H2O + CO2 S2.+ 2H+  H2S H2S + 2O2  H2SO4 . S2. Organic matter + SO42.

2HNO3 + Ca(OH)2  Ca(NO3)2.10H2O .  Nitric acid can be formed from the compounds and radicals of nitrates in the presence of water 3NO2 + H2O  2HNO3 + NO  Nitric acid attack can be represented by the following equations.Al2O3.2H2O Ca(NO3)2.Al2O3. Ca(NO3)2. artificial manure and similar products.NITRIC ACID ATTACK  Nitric acid usually occurs in chemical plants producing explosives.8H2O  3CaO.2H2O + 3CaO.

especially for the case of nitric acid. Nitric acid attack is a typical acidic corrosion for shrinkage of the corroded layer due to leaching of highly soluble calcium nitrate. . can result in the formation of visually observable cracks across the corroded layer.  Such volume contractions of the corroded layer.

W/C = 0.Variation of compressive strength with acid concentration (mix ratio 1:1.65) .5:3.

 Acetic acid reacts with cement hydration products to form calcium acetate  2CH3COOH + Ca(OH)2  Ca(CH3COO)2 + 2H2O  2CH3COOH + C-S-H  SiO2 + Ca(CH3COO)2 + 2H2O .ACETIC ACID ATTACK  Concrete in use in agricultural applications may be attacked by the silage effluents containing mainly acetic and lactic acid.

and due to its buffering effect in corroded layer.g.025 mol l-1. called as core-layer. results in the formation of an additional zone. which is relatively hard and located behind the corroded layer .  In lower concentrations of both acetic and nitric acid solutions. e. 0. Chemical compositions of the core layers in both acetic and nitric acid attacks are similar  The chemical composition of the corroded layer is different from that in nitric acid solution of the same concentration due to higher pH values of the acetic acid solution.

HYDROCHLORIC ACID ATTACK  The chemicals formed as the products of reaction between hydrochloric acid and hydrated cement phases are some soluble salts and some insoluble salts Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl  CaCl2 + 2H2O  By hydroxide mixture zone. . he referred to a layer formed by undissolved salts seen as a dark brown ring.

Quality of concrete Concentration of aggressive carbon dioxide External exposure conditions .CARBONIC ACID ATTACK  Carbonic acid attack usually occurs in the case of buried concrete structures exposed to acidic ground water fro a long time  Atmospheric carbon dioxide absorbed by rain enters ground water as carbonic acid  Factors affecting the rate of carbonic acid attack are.

 When concrete is exposed to carbonic acid. continued carbonation may cause a reduction in alkalinity of the cement paste which can be a serious problem not only in depassivation and corrosion of steel bars but also in dissolution of cement hydrates. . a reaction producing carbonates take place which is accompanied by shrinkage  However.

1R-94 Deterioration of concrete surface of a tank carbonic acid Repaired area .DWORSHAK NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY ACI 210.

 The Dworshak reservoir collects snow melt runoff and releases the pure water during the seasonal incubation and rearing phase of the hatchery production  There was high concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide in the collected water  pH of the collected water was 6.4 .5-7.

FALLING OF COVER DUE TO CORROSION OF REINFORCEMENT .

Concrete Corrosion Above Water Level at Adjoining Effluent Trough Segments 19 .

Concrete Corrosion on Exposed Effluent Trough Surfaces .

Concrete Corrosion in Sludge Valve Box 21 .

Corroded Drain Pipe 22 .

Repair Systems and Procedures  For deteriorated concrete  For non-deteriorated concrete and new concrete 23 .

000 psi. 10.For Deteriorated Concrete  Clean and remove loose concrete from the surface with high pressure water jetting. chip out concrete to expose around the bars.  Apply a migrating corrosion inhibitor 24 . or sandblasting.  If reinforcing bars are exposed and corroded.

Portland-based resurfacing material to restore damaged concrete surfaces where required. 25 .Rebuild the deteriorate surfaces: Apply an underlayment with a fast-setting. Underlayment should be trowelable or sprayable formulation for dimensional rebuilding. high early strength.

Apply an epoxy aggregate filled mortar intermediate coat (125 mils) by trowelling on the rebuilt surfaces. Repair defects. The sealer provides the substrate for chemical and water resistance. 26 . Minimum thickness of lining should be two (2) coats of 30-mils each. Provide final lining with spray apply sealer over aggregate filled epoxy base layer. Perform spark testing to check for voids or defects in coating.

Troweling underlayment to restore damaged concrete surfaces . .

Underlayment with broom finish. .

.Underlayment with spray finish.

30 .Spray apply final lining (sealer) on ceiling and walls.

Application of final lining (sealer coat) on 31 .

32 . 10000 psi. Trowel in an epoxy filler compound specifically designed to fill small voids.For Non-Deteriorated Concrete and New Concrete Clean the concrete surface with with high pressure water jetting. or sandblasting. Apply a migrating corrosion inhibitor on the surface. bugholes and irregularities in concrete surfaces to provide a smooth surface.

The sealer provides the substrate for chemical and water resistance. Filler compound must be compatible with the protective lining.  Perform spark testing to check for voids or defects in coating. 33 . Repair defects. Minimum thickness of lining should be two (2) coats of 30-mils each.  Provide final lining with spray apply sealer over aggregate filled epoxy base layer.

Surface preparation by sandblasting and grinding . 34 .

Application of filler epoxy compound to fill small voids. 35 . bug holes and irregularities on beam.

bug holes and irregularities on trough walls. 36 .Application of filler epoxy compound to fill small voids.

Hand rolling of final lining (sealer coat) on .

Partial coating of final lining (sealer 38 .

39 .Pinholes in sealer coating.

Spark testing to detect defects and pinholes in sealer coating. 40 .

although the formation of gypsum has been reported frequently.CONCLUSIONS  In the case of sulphuric acid attack. However the growth of the corroded layer in solutions of acetic acid is relatively slower than that in the same concentrations of nitric acid solution  The chemical composition of the corroded layer is different from that in nitric acid solution of the same concentration due to higher pH values of the acetic acid solution . there is no agreement on its consequences  Attack by Acetic acid resembles the process of corrosion in nitric acid.

Rizkalla. Response of concrete to sulphuric acid attack. Title no. ACI Material journal.REFERENCES  Mark G. Fundamentals of Durable Reinforced Concrete. Richardson.1 R-94 (reapproved 1999)  Kolapo O. Attiogbe and Sami H. 1989. 2012  Emmanuel K. No. Vol. 2. 10. ACI 210. 85-M46 . Institute of chemical technology. Effect of Nitric Acid Concentration on the Compressive Strength of Laterized Concrete. Acidic corrosion of hydrated cement based materials. 2002  Ali Allahverdi and Frantisek skvara. Department of glass and ceramics  Compendium of Case Histories on Repair of ErosionDamaged Concrete in Hydraulic Structures. 2000. Olusola and Opeyemi Joshua.