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Data Warehousing Overview

CS245 Notes 11
Hector Garcia-Molina
Stanford University

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Notes11

Outline
What is a data warehouse?
Why a warehouse?
Models & operations
Implementing a warehouse

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Notes11

What is a Warehouse?

Collection of diverse data


subject

oriented
aimed at executive, decision maker
often a copy of operational data
with value-added data (e.g., summaries, history)
integrated
time-varying
non-volatile
more
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Notes11

What is a Warehouse?

Collection of tools
gathering

data
cleansing, integrating, ...
querying, reporting, analysis
data mining
monitoring, administering warehouse

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Warehouse Architecture
Client

Client
Query & Analysis

Metadata

Warehouse

Integration

Source
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Source
Notes11

Source
5

Motivating Examples
Forecasting
Comparing performance of units
Monitoring, detecting fraud
Visualization

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Alternative to Warehousing

Two Approaches:
Query-Driven

(Lazy)
Warehouse (Eager)

?
Source
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Source

Query-Driven Approach

Client

Client
Mediator

Wrapper

Source

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Wrapper

Wrapper

Source

Source

Notes11

Advantages of Warehousing
High query performance
Queries not visible outside warehouse
Local processing at sources unaffected
Can operate when sources unavailable
Can query data not stored in a DBMS
Extra information at warehouse

Modify,

summarize (store aggregates)


Add historical information
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Advantages of Query-Driven

No need to copy data


less

storage
no need to purchase data

More up-to-date data


Query needs can be unknown
Only query interface needed at sources
May be less draining on sources

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Warehouse Models & Operators

Data Models
relational
cubes

Operators

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11

Star
product

prodId
p1
p2

name price
bolt
10
nut
5

sale oderId date


o100 1/7/97
o102 2/7/97
105 3/8/97

customer

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custId
53
81
111

store

custId
53
53
111

prodId
p1
p2
p1

name
joe
fred
sally
Notes11

storeId
c1
c1
c3

address
10 main
12 main
80 willow

qty
1
2
5

storeId
c1
c2
c3

city
nyc
sfo
la

amt
12
11
50

city
sfo
sfo
la
12

Star Schema

product
prodId
name
price

sale
orderId
date
custId
prodId
storeId
qty
amt

customer
custId
name
address
city

store
storeId
city

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13

Terms
Fact table
Dimension tables
Measures

product
prodId
name
price

sale
orderId
date
custId
prodId
storeId
qty
amt

customer
custId
name
address
city

store
storeId
city

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14

Dimension Hierarchies
sType
store

store storeId
s5
s7
s9

city
cityId
sfo
sfo
la

tId
t1
t2
t1

mgr
joe
fred
nancy

region
sType tId
t1
t2
city

snowflake schema
constellations
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size
small
large

cityId pop
sfo
1M
la
5M

location
downtown
suburbs
regId
north
south

region regId
name
north cold region
south warm region
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Cube
Fact table view:
sale

prodId
p1
p2
p1
p2

storeId
c1
c1
c3
c2

Multi-dimensional cube:
amt
12
11
50
8

p1
p2

c1
12
11

c2

c3
50

dimensions = 2

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16

3-D Cube
Fact table view:
sale

prodId
p1
p2
p1
p2
p1
p1

storeId
c1
c1
c3
c2
c1
c2

Multi-dimensional cube:
date
1
1
1
1
2
2

amt
12
11
50
8
44
4

day 2
day 1

p1
p2 c1
p1
12
p2
11

c1
44

c2
4
c2

c3
c3
50

dimensions = 3

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Operators

Traditional

Relational

Cube

selection
aggregation
...

Analysis
clean

data
find trends
...
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Aggregates
Add up amounts for day 1
In SQL: SELECT sum(amt) FROM SALE
WHERE date = 1
sale

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prodId storeId
p1
c1
p2
c1
p1
c3
p2
c2
p1
c1
p1
c2

date
1
1
1
1
2
2

amt
12
11
50
8
44
4

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81

19

Aggregates
Add up amounts by day
In SQL: SELECT date, sum(amt) FROM SALE
GROUP BY date
sale

prodId storeId
p1
c1
p2
c1
p1
c3
p2
c2
p1
c1
p1
c2

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date
1
1
1
1
2
2

amt
12
11
50
8
44
4

Notes11

ans

date
1
2

sum
81
48

20

Another Example
Add up amounts by day, product
In SQL: SELECT date, sum(amt) FROM SALE
GROUP BY date, prodId
sale

prodId storeId
p1
c1
p2
c1
p1
c3
p2
c2
p1
c1
p1
c2

date
1
1
1
1
2
2

amt
12
11
50
8
44
4

sale

prodId
p1
p2
p1

date
1
1
2

amt
62
19
48

rollup
drill-down
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Aggregates
Operators: sum, count, max, min,
median, ave
Having clause
Using dimension hierarchy

average

by region (within store)


maximum by month (within date)

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Cube Aggregation
day 2
day 1

p1
p2 c1
p1
12
p2
11

p1
p2

c1
56
11

c1
44

c2
4
c2

c3
c3
50

c2
4
8

rollup
drill-down
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Example: computing sums


...

c3
50

sum

c1
67

c2
12

c3
50

129
p1
p2
Notes11

sum
110
19

23

Cube Operators
day 2
day 1

p1
p2 c1
p1
12
p2
11

c1
56
11

p1
p2

c1
44

c2
4
c2

...

c3
50

sale(c1,*,*)

c2
4
8

c3
50

sale(c2,p2,*)
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c3

sum

c1
67

c2
12

c3
50

129
p1
p2
Notes11

sum
110
19

sale(*,*,*)
24

Extended Cube
c2
4
8
c312

p1
p2
c1
*
12

p1
p2
c1*
44

c1
56
11
c267
4

c2
44

c3
4
50

11
23

8
8

50

*
62
19
81

day 2

day 1

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p1
p2
*

Notes11

c3
50

* 50
48
48

*
110
19
129

sale(*,p2,*)

25

Aggregation Using Hierarchies

day 2
day 1

p1
p2 c1
p1
12
p2
11

c1
44

c2
4
c2

c3
c3
50

customer
region

country
p1
p2

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region A region B
56
54
11
8

(customer c1 in Region A;
customers c2, c3 in Region B)

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26

Data Analysis
Decision Trees
Clustering
Association Rules

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Decision Trees
Example:
Conducted survey to see what customers were
interested in new model car
Want to select customers for advertising campaign
sale

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custId
c1
c2
c3
c4
c5
c6

car
taurus
van
van
taurus
merc
taurus

age
27
35
40
22
50
25

Notes11

city newCar
sf
yes
la
yes
sf
yes
sf
yes
la
no
la
no

training
set

28

One Possibility
sale

custId
c1
c2
c3
c4
c5
c6

age<30
Y

city=sf
Y

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age
27
35
40
22
50
25

city newCar
sf
yes
la
yes
sf
yes
sf
yes
la
no
la
no

car=van
N

likely

car
taurus
van
van
taurus
merc
taurus

unlikely

likely

unlikely

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29

Another Possibility
sale

custId
c1
c2
c3
c4
c5
c6

car=taurus
Y

city=sf
Y

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age
27
35
40
22
50
25

city newCar
sf
yes
la
yes
sf
yes
sf
yes
la
no
la
no

age<45
N

likely

car
taurus
van
van
taurus
merc
taurus

unlikely

likely

unlikely

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Issues

Decision tree cannot be too deep

would not have statistically significant amounts of


data for lower decisions

Need to select tree that most reliably


predicts outcomes

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Clustering

income
education
age

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Clustering

income
education
age

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Another Example: Text

Each document is a vector


e.g.,

<100110...> contains words 1,4,5,...

Clusters contain similar documents


Useful for understanding, searching
documents

sports
international
news
business
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Issues
Given desired number of clusters?
Finding best clusters
Are clusters semantically meaningful?

e.g.,

yuppies cluster?

Using clusters for disk storage

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Association Rule Mining


on
i
t
er
c
a
m
s
to
n
s
a
d
r
i
u
t
c
id

sales
records:

tran1
tran2
tran3
tran4
tran5
tran6

cust33
cust45
cust12
cust40
cust12
cust12

p2,
p5,
p1,
p5,
p2,
p9

ts
c
du ht
o
pr oug
b
p5, p8
p8, p11
p9
p8, p11
p9

market-basket
data

Trend: Products p5, p8 often bough together


Trend: Customer 12 likes product p9
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Association Rule

Rule: {p1, p3, p8}

Support: number of baskets where these


products appear
High-support set: support threshold s
Problem: find all high support sets

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Implementation Issues

ETL (Extraction, transformation, loading)


Getting

data to the warehouse


Entity Resolution

What to materialize?
Efficient Analysis

Association

rule mining

...

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Periodic snapshots
Database triggers
Log shipping
Data shipping (replication service)
Transaction shipping
Polling (queries to source)
Screen scraping
Application level monitoring

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Advantages & Disadvantages!!

ETL: Monitoring Techniques

39

ETL: Data Cleaning

Migration (e.g., yen dollars)


Scrubbing: use domain-specific knowledge (e.g.,
social security numbers)
Fusion (e.g., mail list, customer merging)

billing DB
service DB

customer1(Joe)

merged_customer(Joe)

customer2(Joe)

Auditing: discover rules & relationships


(like data mining)
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More details: Entity Resolution


e2

e1

N: a

41

A: b

CC#: c

Ph: e

N: a

Exp: d

Ph: e

Applications
comparison shopping
mailing lists
classified ads
N: a
customer files
counter-terrorism

e1

A: b

Ph: e

e2

N: a

42

CC#: c

Exp: d

Ph: e

Why is ER Challenging?
Huge data sets
No unique identifiers
Lots of uncertainty
Many ways to skin the cat

43

Taxonomy: Pairwise vs Global


Decide if r, s match only by looking at r, s?
Or need to consider more (all) records?

Nm: Pat Smith


Ad: 123 Main St
Ph: (650) 555-1212

Nm: Patrick Smith


Ad: 132 Main St
Ph: (650) 555-1212
or
Nm: Patricia Smith
Ad: 123 Main St
Ph: (650) 777-1111

44

Taxonomy: Pairwise vs Global

Global matching complicates things a lot!


e.g.,

change decision as new records arrive

Nm: Pat Smith


Ad: 123 Main St
Ph: (650) 555-1212

Nm: Patrick Smith


Ad: 132 Main St
Ph: (650) 555-1212
or
Nm: Patricia Smith
Ad: 123 Main St
Ph: (650) 777-1111

45

Taxonomy: Outcome

Partition of records
e.g.,

comparison shopping

Merged records
Nm: Pat Smith
Ad: 123 Main St
Ph: (650) 555-1212

46

Nm: Patricia Smith


Ad: 132 Main St
Ph: (650) 777-1111
Hair: Black

Nm: Patricia Smith


Ad: 123 Main St
Ph: (650) 555-1212
(650) 777-1111
Hair: Black

Taxonomy: Outcome
Iterate

after merging

Nm: Tom
Ad: 123 Main
BD: Jan 1, 85
Wk: IBM
Nm: Tom
Ad: 123 Main
BD: Jan 1, 85
Wk: IBM
Oc: lawyer
47

Nm: Thomas
Ad: 123 Maim
Oc: lawyer

Nm: Tom
Wk: IBM
Oc: laywer
Sal: 500K

Nm: Tom
Ad: 123 Main
BD: Jan 1, 85
Wk: IBM
Oc: lawyer
Sal: 500K

Taxonomy: Record Reuse

One record related to multiple entities?


Nm: Pat Smith Sr.
Ph: (650) 555-1212
Ph: (650) 555-1212
Ad: 123 Main St

Nm: Pat Smith Jr.


Ph: (650) 555-1212
48

Nm: Pat Smith Sr.


Ph: (650) 555-1212
Ad: 123 Main St
Nm: Pat Smith Jr.
Ph: (650) 555-1212
Ad: 123 Main St

Taxonomy: Record Reuse

Partitions

Merges
t

rs

s
st
t

49

Taxonomy: Record Reuse

Partitions

Merges
t

rs

s
st
t
Record reuse
50

complex and expensive!

Taxonomy: Multiple Entity Types


person 1

person 2

brother

Organization A

member
member

business

Organization B

51

Taxonomy: Multiple Entity Types


authors

same??

a1

p1

a2

p2

a3

p5

a4

p7

a5
52

papers

Taxonomy: Exact vs Approximate


cameras

CDs

ER

resolved
cameras

ER

resolved
CDs

ER

resolved
books

products
books

...
53

...

Taxonomy: Exact vs Approximate

terrorists

sort
by age terrorists
B Cooper 30

54

match against
ages 25-35

Implementation Issues

ETL (Extraction, transformation, loading)


Getting

data to the warehouse


Entity Resolution

What to materialize?
Efficient Analysis

Association

rule mining

...

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What to Materialize?
Store in warehouse results useful for
common queries
Example:
total sales

day 2
day 1

c1
c2
c3
p1
44
4
p2 c1
c2
c3
p1
12
50
p2
11
8

p1
p2

c1
56
11

c2
4
8

c3
50

materialize
CS 245

...

p1

c2
12

c3
50

129
p1
p2

Notes11

c1
67

c1
110
19

56

Materialization Factors
Type/frequency of queries
Query response time
Storage cost
Update cost

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Cube Aggregates Lattice


129

c1
67

p1

c2
12

c3
50

city

city, product
p1
p2

c1
56
11

c2
4
8

all

product

city, date

date

product, date

c3
50

day 2
day 1

CS 245

c1
c2
c3
p1
44
4
p2 c1
c2
c3
p1
12
50
p2
11
8

city, product, date


Notes11

use greedy
algorithm to
decide what
to materialize
58

Dimension Hierarchies
all
cities

state

city
c1
c2

state
CA
NY

city

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Dimension Hierarchies
all
city

city, product

product

city, date

date

product, date
state

city, product, date

state, date
state, product
state, product, date

not all arcs shown...


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Interesting Hierarchy
time

all
years
weeks

quarters

day
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

week
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

month
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

quarter
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

year
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000

conceptual
dimension table

months
days
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Implementation Issues

ETL (Extraction, transformation, loading)


Getting

data to the warehouse


Entity Resolution

What to materialize?
Efficient Analysis

Association

rule mining

...

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Finding High-Support Pairs


Baskets(basket, item)
SELECT I.item, J.item, COUNT(I.basket)
FROM Baskets I, Baskets J
WHERE I.basket = J.basket AND
I.item < J.item
GROUP BY I.item, J.item
HAVING COUNT(I.basket) >= s;

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Finding High-Support Pairs


Baskets(basket, item)
SELECT I.item, J.item, COUNT(I.basket)
FROM Baskets I, Baskets J
WHERE I.basket = J.basket AND
I.item < J.item
WHY?
GROUP BY I.item, J.item
HAVING COUNT(I.basket) >= s;

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Example
basket item
t1
p2
t1
p5
t1
p8
t2
p5
t2
p8
t2
p11
...
...

CS 245

basket item1 item2


t1
p2
p5
t1
p2
p8
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p5
p11
t2
p8
p11
...
...
...

Notes11

65

Example
basket item
t1
p2
t1
p5
t1
p8
t2
p5
t2
p8
t2
p11
...
...

CS 245

basket item1 item2


t1
p2
p5
t1
p2
p8
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p5
p11
t2
p8
p11
...
...
...

Notes11

check if
count s

66

Issues

Performance for size 2 rules


big

basket
t1
t1
t1
t2
t2
t2
...

item
p2
p5
p8
p5
p8
p11
...

basket
t1
t1
t1
t2
t2
t2
...

item1
p2
p2
p5
p5
p5
p8
...

item2
p5
p8
p8
p8
p11
p11
...

even
bigger!

Performance for size k rules

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Association Rules

How do we perform rule mining efficiently?

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Association Rules
How do we perform rule mining efficiently?
Observation: If set X has support t, then
each X subset must have at least support t

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Association Rules
How do we perform rule mining efficiently?
Observation: If set X has support t, then
each X subset must have at least support t
For 2-sets:

if

we need support s for {i, j}


then each i, j must appear in at least s
baskets

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Algorithm for 2-Sets


(1) Find OK products
those

appearing in s or more baskets

(2) Find high-support pairs


using only OK products

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Algorithm for 2-Sets

INSERT INTO okBaskets(basket, item)


SELECT basket, item
FROM Baskets
GROUP BY item
HAVING COUNT(basket) >= s;

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Algorithm for 2-Sets

INSERT INTO okBaskets(basket, item)


SELECT basket, item
FROM Baskets
GROUP BY item
HAVING COUNT(basket) >= s;
Perform mining on okBaskets
SELECT I.item, J.item, COUNT(I.basket)
FROM okBaskets I, okBaskets J
WHERE I.basket = J.basket AND
I.item < J.item
GROUP BY I.item, J.item
HAVING COUNT(I.basket) >= s;

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Counting Efficiently

One way:

threshold = 3

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

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Counting Efficiently

One way:

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

CS 245

sort

threshold = 3
basket I.item J.item
t3
p2
p3
t3
p2
p8
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t3
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
...
...
...

Notes11

75

Counting Efficiently

One way:

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

CS 245

sort

threshold = 3
basket I.item J.item
t3
p2
p3
t3
p2
p8
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t3
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
...
...
...

Notes11

count &
remove

count I.item J.item


3
p5
p8
5
p12 p18
...
...
...

76

Counting Efficiently

Another way:

threshold = 3

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

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Counting Efficiently

Another way:

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

scan &
count

threshold = 3
count I.item J.item
1
p2
p3
2
p2
p8
3
p5
p8
5
p12
p18
1
p21
p22
2
p21
p23
...
...
...

keep counter
array in memory
CS 245

Notes11

78

Counting Efficiently

Another way:

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

scan &
count

threshold = 3
count I.item J.item
1
p2
p3
2
p2
p8
3
p5
p8
5
p12
p18
1
p21
p22
2
p21
p23
...
...
...

remove

count I.item J.item


3
p5
p8
5
p12 p18
...
...
...

keep counter
array in memory
CS 245

Notes11

79

Counting Efficiently

Another way:

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

scan &
count

threshold = 3
count I.item J.item
1
p2
p3
2
p2
p8
3
p5
p8
5
p12
p18
1
p21
p22
2
p21
p23
...
...
...

remove

count I.item J.item


3
p5
p8
5
p12 p18
...
...
...

keep counter
array in memory
CS 245

Notes11

80

Yet Another Way


basket I.item J.item
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

CS 245

(1)
scan &
hash &
count

count
1
5
2
1
8
1
...

bucket
A
B
C
D
E
F
...

Notes11

in-memory
hash table

threshold = 3

81

Yet Another Way


basket I.item J.item
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

(2) scan &


remove
CS 245

(1)
scan &
hash &
count

count
1
5
2
1
8
1
...

bucket
A
B
C
D
E
F
...

in-memory
hash table

threshold = 3

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p5
p8
t5
p12 p18
t8
p12 p18
...
...
...
Notes11

82

Yet Another Way


basket I.item J.item
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

(1)
scan &
hash &
count

(2) scan &


remove
false positive
CS 245

count
1
5
2
1
8
1
...

bucket
A
B
C
D
E
F
...

in-memory
hash table

threshold = 3

basket I.item J.item


t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p5
p8
t5
p12 p18
t8
p12 p18
...
...
...
Notes11

83

Yet Another Way


basket I.item J.item
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

(1)
scan &
hash &
count

(2) scan &


remove
false positive
CS 245

count
1
5
2
1
8
1
...

bucket
A
B
C
D
E
F
...

in-memory
hash table

threshold = 3

in-memory
counters
basket I.item J.item
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p5
p8
t5
p12 p18
t8
p12 p18
...
...
...
Notes11

count I.item J.item


3
p5
p8
1
p8
p11
5
p12
p18
...
...
...

(3) scan& count


84

Yet Another Way


basket I.item J.item
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p2
p3
t3
p5
p8
t3
p2
p8
...
...
...

(1)
scan &
hash &
count

(2) scan &


remove
false positive
CS 245

count
1
5
2
1
8
1
...

bucket
A
B
C
D
E
F
...

in-memory
hash table

in-memory
counters
basket I.item J.item
t1
p5
p8
t2
p5
p8
t2
p8
p11
t3
p5
p8
t5
p12 p18
t8
p12 p18
...
...
...
Notes11

threshold = 3

count I.item J.item


3
p5
p8
5
p12 p18
...
...
...

(4) remove

count I.item J.item


3
p5
p8
1
p8
p11
5
p12
p18
...
...
...

(3) scan& count


85

Discussion

Hashing scheme: 2 (or 3) scans of data


Sorting scheme: requires a sort!
Hashing works well if few high-support pairs
and many low-support ones

CS 245

Notes11

86

Discussion

frequency

Hashing scheme: 2 (or 3) scans of data


Sorting scheme: requires a sort!
Hashing works well if few high-support pairs
and many low-support ones
iceberg queries
threshold
item-pairs ranked by frequency

CS 245

Notes11

87

Implementation Issues

ETL (Extraction, transformation, loading)


Getting

data to the warehouse


Entity Resolution

What to materialize?
Efficient Analysis

Association

rule mining

...

CS 245

Notes11

88

Extra: Data Mining in the InfoLab


Recommendations in CourseRank
quarters
user
u1
u2
u3
u4
u

CS 245

q1
a: 5
a: 1
g: 4
b: 2
a: 5

q2
b: 5
e: 2
h: 2
g: 4
g: 4

Notes11

q3
d: 5
d: 4
e: 3
h: 4
e: 4

q4

f: 3
f: 3
e: 4

89

Extra: Data Mining in the InfoLab


Recommendations in CourseRank
quarters
user
u1
u2
u3
u4
u

q1
a: 5
a: 1
g: 4
b: 2
a: 5

q2
b: 5
e: 2
h: 2
g: 4
g: 4

u3 and u4 are similar to u

CS 245

q3
d: 5
d: 4
e: 3
h: 4
e: 4

q4

f: 3
f: 3
e: 4

Recommend h

Notes11

90

Extra: Data Mining in the InfoLab


Recommendations in CourseRank
quarters
user
u1
u2
u3
u4
u

q1
a: 5
a: 1
g: 4
b: 2
a: 5

q2
b: 5
e: 2
h: 2
g: 4
g: 4

q3
d: 5
d: 4
e: 3
h: 4
e: 4

q4

f: 3
f: 3
e: 4

Recommend d (and f, h)

CS 245

Notes11

91

Sequence Mining
Given a set of transcripts, use Pr[x|a]
to predict if x is a good recommendation
given user has taken a.
Two issues...

CS 245

Notes11

92

Pr[x|a] Not Quite Right


transcript containing
1
2
a
3
x
4
a -> x
5
x -> a

target users transcript:


[ ... a .... || unknown ]
recommend x?

Pr[x|a] = 2/3
Pr[x|a~x] = 1/2

CS 245

Notes11

93

User Has Taken >= 1 Course


User has taken T= {a, b, c}
Need Pr[x|T~x]
Approximate as Pr[x|a~x b~x c~x ]
Expensive to compute, so...

CS 245

Notes11

94

percentage of ratings

CourseRank User Study

CS 245

good, expected
good, unexpected

Notes11

95