Chapter 3:3-4 Pages 88-103

Key Terms: Match the
Terms on the left with the correct definition on the right. Term Definition
1. Legalism 2. Dao 3. Daoism 4. Confucianism 5. Mandate of Heaven 6. filial piety A. a belief during the Zhou dynasty that kings received their authority to command, or mandate, from Heaven B. the proper “Way” that a king was expected to rule in order to please the gods and protect the people C. the duty of members of a family to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family D. a system of ideas based on the teachings of Confucius E. a system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi F. a philosophy that stressed harsh laws and punishments

Geography of China
 

China is known as the Middle Kingdom because they believed themselves to be in the center of the world Boundaries such as the oceans, deserts, and mountains isolated China from their neighbors.
 The mountains and deserts served as barriers that separated the Chinese people from other

Asian people.  In the regions created by the mountains and deserts, there were other people groups who were often in conflict with the Chinese.

Locate and label the following on the China Map: •China •Pacific Ocean •Gobi Desert •Himalaya Mountains •Plateau of Tibet •Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) •Huang He (Yellow River) •Xian (Changan) •Mongolia

Mongolia Gobi Desert

Plateau of Tibet Himalaya Mnts.

Huang He (Yellow River) •Xia China n Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)

Pacific Ocean

First Civilizations in China
 

Xia Dynasty: Beginning of Chinese civilization but little is known about this time. Shang Dynasty (1750BC-1122BC)

Established a Capital at Anyang and invented bronze casting

Shang Religious Beliefs:
○ The Shang rulers believed that they could ○ ○ ○

communicate with the gods to get help with their affairs. Priests used oracle bones to get answers from the gods. There was a strong belief in life after death. Humans were sacrificed to please the gods and to provide protection for the king and his family on their journey to the next world. The Chinese also believed that the spirits of ancestors could bring good or evil to living members of a family, so it was important to treat the spirits well.

Zhou Dynasty:

the longest lasting dynasty, claimed they ruled China  The Mandate of Heaven is the because of the Mandate of Heaven
 kings received their authority to

belief that Heaven keeps order in the universe through a king that rules over all humanity.
command, or mandate, from Heaven.  It was the king’s duty to keep the gods pleased to protect people from bad harvest and disasters. If he failed, he could be overthrown.  This gave people the “right of revolution.” The king was not a divine being and could be overthrown.

The dynastic cycle explains the rise and fall of ruling families in China

Zhou Dynasty
   

Artisans and merchants were not free but lived in walled cities under the control of a lord. Population increased and so did trade along the Silk Road.
 Cloth, Salt, Silk, and other luxury goods

Filial Piety: Society was patriarchal.
 Women had no real authority but could influence public affairs

Chinese writing consisted of pictographs and ideographs.

Three Schools of Thought
Confucianism

Confucius founded about 500 BC
 The Analects are the written collection

Confucian ideas

Government:
 Ruler should be virtuous and lead by

example and should be educated  Should be open to all of superior talent

Three Schools of Thought:
Confucianism  Two elements that stand out in the Confucian view of the Dao:
Duty –
○ All people had to set aside their own needs for the broader

needs of the family and community;
duties.

 Filial piety= the respect for one’s parents that came before all other

- Everyone has a specific role in the family including children. ○ Everyone is governed by the Five Constant Relationships.
 Father to son, elder brother to younger brother, husband to wife, ruler to

subject, friend to friend

- Older superior to younger, Men superior to women

Humanity –
○ consists of a sense of compassion and empathy for others  “Do not do to others what you would not want done to you.”

Three Schools of Thought
Taoism (Daoism)
Way : The Unspoken

  
 

The founder, Laozi (Lao Tsu) Basic Ideas:
Sets forth proper forms of behavior for human beings on Earth True way to follow the will of Heaven is not action, but inaction Best way to act in harmony with universal order is to act spontaneously and let nature takes its course by not interfering with it.

Government was seen as unnatural

Three Schools of Thought
Legalism

Hanfeizi founded it in 200’s BC
Proposed that human beings are evil by nature and could only
be brought to follow the correct path by harsh laws and stiff punishments Strong ruler required to create order

Essential Questions: 1. How did Qin Shi Huangdi promote unity in China? 2. What were Han China’s greatest achievements? 3. How were these two empires similar and different?

Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)

as the official philosophy of the dynasty  Prohibited all other philosophies and held public book burnings

Qin Shi Huang Di was the first emperor and adopted Legalism

Major Achievements
   known for the Great Wall and his tomb with the terra cotta soldiers Unified China through a single monetary system and roads He created a highly centralized state with three ministries in which officials were chosen by a merit system rather than hereditary
1. 2. 3. Civil, Military, and Censorate: inspectors checked on government officials to make sure they were doing their job.

Qin Architectur e

Shi Huang Di tomb:
 In 1974 farmers

discovered it while digging a well
○ Had an army of Terra-

Cotta Soldiers

http://dsc.discovery.com/video/index.html?playerId=203711706&categoryId=208816816&

Shi Huang Di linked defensive walls to become the Great Wall of China
 1,500 years later the

Ming Dynasty finished the wall  It stretches 4,000 miles from Central Asia to the China Sea across northern China

Han Dynasty 202 BC-220 AD by Liu Bang Founded
(Han Gaozu), an illiterate peasant that became an efficient and benevolent ruler

Kept centralized state of the Qin but rejected Legalism for Confucianism Officials still selected based on talent and merit ○ 165BCE first civil service exams and established academy to train government officials

Confucianism and the State

Han Society and  Economy

Chang’an was the capital at modern Xian.
 Han Wudi expanded the territory of the Dynasty South and West Population increased, the wealthy gained power and standard of living for peasants declined

Society:

 Productive and But they were not as heavily taxed or harshly treated as under Prosperous Economy the Qin

Trade with Central and South Asia, Indian Ocean, and the Mediterranean on the Silk Road New technology: ○ textile manufacturing ○ water mills for grinding grain ○ iron casting -> led to steel ○ Paper ○ rudder and rigging for improved sailing

Fall of the Han

 

Wang Mang tried to improve life for peasants and abolish slavery but failed and was killed in a coup d’etat Some tried to restore order but also failed. Division, anarchy, and invasions lasted 400 years until the next dynasty surfaced.

China Blog
1. 2.

Read your assigned question and use your notes and chapter 3 to write an answer with at least 5 sentences. Post your answer to YOUR NING PAGE in the form of a blog.
a) Use your question as the title of your blog. b) Write your answer in the body.

3.

Read 6 people’s blogs, one for each of the other questions that are different from yours.
1. then leave a comment for each of them. 2. It could be a statement or a question.

Use a plain piece of white or colored paper to describe and illustrate the three major philosophies in China: P. 94-97
 Include information

Chinese Philosophies
Confucianis m
         

Legalism
 

Daoism

about the founder, texts, view of government and human nature.  Each panel should include a title, picture, and at least 4 bullets of important information.

Use a plain piece of white or colored paper to describe and illustrate the three major dynasties in China: P. 92-102
 Include information

Chinese Dynasties
Zhou
         

Qin
 

Han

about the founder, philosophy of rule, major achievements, and obstacles  Each panel should include a title, picture, and at least 4 bullets of important information.