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Chapter 6 Molecules and

Covalent Compounds
6.5
Electronegativity and
Bond Polarity
6.6
Polarity of Molecules

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Electronegativity
Electronegativity values:
Indicate the attraction of an atom for shared
electrons
Increase from left to right going across a period on
the periodic table
Is high for the nonmetals with fluorine as the
highest
Is low for the metals

Some Electronegativity Values for


Group A Elements
High
values

Low
values
Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Nonpolar Covalent Bonds


A nonpolar covalent bond,
Occurs between nonmetals
Is an equal or almost equal sharing of electrons
Has almost no electronegativity difference (0.0 to 0.4)
Examples:
Atoms
Electronegativity
Difference
N-N
3.0 - 3.0 = 0.0
Cl-Br
3.0 - 2.8 = 0.2
H-Si
2.1 - 1.8 = 0.3

Type of Bond
Nonpolar covalent
Nonpolar covalent
Nonpolar covalent

Polar Covalent Bonds


A polar covalent bond,
Occurs between nonmetals atoms
Is an unequal sharing of electrons
Has a moderate electronegativity difference (0.5 to 1.7)
Examples:
Atoms
Electronegativity
Difference
O-Cl
3.5 - 3.0 = 0.5
Cl-C
3.0 - 2.5 = 0.5
O-S
3.5 - 2.5 = 1.0

Type of Bond
Polar covalent
Polar covalent
Polar covalent
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Comparing Nonpolar and Polar


Covalent Bonds

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Ionic Bonds
An ionic bond,
Occurs between metal and nonmetals ions
Is a results of electron transfer
Has a large electronegativity difference (1.8 or more)
Examples:
Atoms
Electronegativity
Difference
Cl-K
3.0 0.8
= 2.2
N-Na
3.0 0.9
= 2.1
S-Cs
2.5 0.7
= 1.8

Type of Bond
Ionic
Ionic
Ionic

Range of Bond Types

Predicting Bond Types

Learning Check
Use the electronegativity difference to identify the
type of bond between the following as:
nonpolar covalent (NP), polar covalent (P), or
ionic (I).
A.
B.
C.
D.

K-N
N-O
Cl-Cl
H-Cl

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Solution
Use the electronegativity difference to identify the
type of bond between the following as:
nonpolar covalent (NP), polar covalent (P), or
ionic (I).
A.
B.
C.
D.

K-N
N-O
Cl-Cl
H-Cl

2.2
0.5
0.0
0.9

ionic (I)
polar covalent (P)
nonpolar covalent (NP)
polar covalent (P)

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Polar Molecules
A polar molecule,
Contains polar bonds

Has a separation of positive and negative charge


called a dipole indicated with + and
Has dipoles that do not cancel
+
HCl
ClNCl
dipole

Cl
dipoles do not cancel

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Nonpolar Molecules
A nonpolar molecule,
Contains nonpolar bonds
ClCl
HH

Or has a symmetrical arrangement of polar bonds


O=C=O

Cl

ClCCl
Cl
dipoles cancel

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Determining Molecular Polarity


STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
Example:

Write the electron-dot formula.


Determine the polarity of the bonds.
Determine if any dipoles cancel or not.
H 2O

..
HO:

H2O is polar

H
dipoles do not cancel

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Learning Check
Identify each of the following molecules as:
1) polar or 2) nonpolar. Explain.
A.

PBr3

B.

HBr

C.

Br2

D.

SiBr4

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Solution
Identify each of the following molecules as:
1) polar or 2) nonpolar. Explain.
A.

PBr3

1) pyramidal; dipoles dont cancel; polar

B.
C.

HBr
Br2

1) linear; one polar bond (dipole); polar


2) linear; nonpolar bond; nonpolar

D.

SiBr4

2) tetrahedral; dipoles cancel; nonpolar

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