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Synchronous Machine

The stator is similar in construction that of a induction motor

The rotor can be Salient or Non-Salient (cylindrical rotor)
Field excitation is provided on the rotor by either permanent or
electromagnets with number of poles equal to the poles of the
RMF caused by stator
Non-excited rotors are also possible as in case of reluctance motors

The stator of a synchronous motor is identical to that of an
induction motor. However, unlike an induction motor, a
magnetic field is created by the rotor either through the use
of permanent magnets or through a rotor winding with slip
rings and brushes. The presence of the magnetic field on
the rotor allows the rotor to move at synchronous speed
with the stator field.


The rotor shape of a synchronous motor may be salient or

non-salient, i.e. the air gap may be non-uniform or
uniform, respectively.

Synchronous motors are more expensive than induction
motors but offer the advantage of higher efficiency, an
important advantage at high power.
Thus, synchronous motors are used for power generation
and large motor drives.
A comparison of a 6MW induction motor and a wound field
synchronous motor is shown on the next slide.


Salient pole synchronous generators are used in low speed
applications, such as in hydroelectric power stations where
they are used to match the low operating speed of the
hydraulic turbines.
Non-salient pole synchronous generators are used in highspeed applications such as steam-power stations to match
the high-speed steam turbines.


In addition to the field winding, the rotor of a wound field

synchronous motor usually also contains a second
winding. This armortisseur, or damper winding, is like the
short-circuited squirrel cage bars in an induction motor.
Also, additional damper windings in the rotor can be used
to represent the damping effects of eddy currents in the
solid iron of the rotor poles.

The d -axis is aligned with the North pole of the rotor and the

qe-axis is aligned orthogonally to the d e-axis.

Note: In Ongs book

the qe-axis leads the
de-axis whereas in
Boses book the qeaxis lags the de-axis.

Synchronous Machine (2)

The rotor gets locked to the RMF and rotates unlike induction
motor at synchronous speed under all load condition
All conventional power plants use synchronous generators for
converting power to electrical form
They operate at a better power factor and higher efficiency than
equivalent induction machines

Synchronous Machine
(b) SPSM

Concept of synchronous reactance (1)

Like dc machines synchronous machines will also have armature
reaction. However unlike dc machine we do not like to eliminate
it, but try to use it to our benefit.

Essentially, this armature reaction will determine how much

power can be transferred to or from the synchronous machine and
limits the current that is flowing in the synchronous machine and
hence provides inherent short-circuit protection: a great boon
when we are talking about zillions of megawatts of power flow!

Concept of synchronous reactance (2)

Suppose we short-circuit a synchronous generator with the field
circuit excited. By Faradays law an emf will be induced in the
stator (armature) which by Lenzs law has to oppose the original
field on the rotor. It means the resulting armature reaction will
induce an opposing emf to the one produced by the main field.
One way to represent this is the following circuit where Xar
conjures up the effect of armature reaction. This can be proved
as follows: Suppose the original field flux is f= m cost.
By Fardays and Lenzs law this would produce a voltage
Ef= Em sint. This voltage produce a current and hence flux that
opposes f, under short-circuit. This current then has to of the form
Isc=-Im cost. Clearly Ef/jXar= Em sint/jXar would give such a current.

Equivalent circuit of CRSM (1)

Generator (Appx.)

Generator (Exact)




Only difference is in current direction; in a generator it flows

out of it, in case of a motor it flows into it.

Equivalent circuit of CRSM (2)


Generator (Exact)



Xs=Xar+Xal (Synchronous reactance)

Zs= Ra+jXs (Synchronous impedance)
Xal is leakage Reactance
Ra is armature resistance

Phasor diagram of CRSM

Note: is +ve for (a) generator and ve for (b) motor

Derivation of power equation for CRSM

on the green board

Effect of Load Change (Field constant)

Note: Er same as Ef
Va same as Vt
Ra has been neglected

Effect of Field Change (Load constant)

Note: Er same as Ef
Va same as Vt
Ra has been neglected

Question: 1)Why is the loci of stator current and excitation voltage

moves on a straight line?
2) What is happening to power factor as field is changed?

V curves

Effect of Field Change (Load constant)

for a generator







Conclusion for effect for field change with

constant load on power factor
For motor with increased (decreased)excitation power factor becomes
leading (lagging)
For generator with increased (decreased) excitation power factor
becomes lagging (leading)
Unloaded overexcited synchronous motors are sometimes used
to improve power factor. They are known as synchronous condensers

Torque versus Electrical Load Angle

Normalized Torque, Power











Torque versus Speed

Power Angle Characteristics of SPSM

Equivalent Circuit of NonSalient

A simple per-phase
circuit for
a round rotor
synchronous motor can be developed in a manner similar to
the per-phase equivalent circuit of the induction motor.
The figure on the next slide shows a transformer-coupled
circuit linking the stator and the moving rotor winding.

Equivalent Circuit of NonSalient Pole Wound Rotor

Motor (contd)

The rotor is supplied with a current If

produced by a voltage Vf.

Equivalent Circuit of NonSalient

The rotor
can be replaced
by an ac
current source whose amplitude is I (=nI )
and frequency is . That results in the

equivalent circuit below:

Equivalent Circuit of NonSalient

R and
replacing Rotor
the current
source and parallel inductance with a
Thevenin equivalent, we get the

equivalent circuit shown below:

Permanent Magnet Technology

The use of permanent magnets (PMs) in construction of
electrical machines
brings the following benefits:
no electrical energy is absorbed by the field excitation
system and thus there are no excitation losses which
means substantial increase in the efficiency,
higher torque and/or output power per volume than when
using electromagnetic excitation,
better dynamic performance than motors with
electromagnetic excitation (higher magnetic flux density
in the air gap),
simplification of construction and maintenance,
reduction of prices for some types of machines.

Permanent Magnet Classification

Permanent Magnet Classification

PM synchronous motors are widely used in industrial

servo-applications due to its high-performance

PMSM Nick-name : Sine-wave brushless DC motor
General characteristics
High efficiency (no excitation current)
Smooth torque
Low acoustic noise
Fast dynamic response (both torque and speed)

industrial drives, e.g., pumps, fans, blowers, mills, hoists, handling

elevators and escalators, people movers, light railways and streetcars
(trams), electric road vehicles, aircraft flight control surface actuation

General features about the
- Sinusoidal or quasi sinusoidal
distribution of magnet flux in
- Sinusoidal or quasi sinusoidal
current waveforms
- Quasi sinusoidal
distribution of stator

Classification based on rotor technology

Merrills rotor-Classical configuration
The laminated external ring has
deep narrow
slots between each of the PM poles.
leakage flux produced by the PM can
adjusted by changing the width of
the narrow
slots. The PM is mounted on the
shaft with the
aid of an aluminum or zinc alloy

Classification based on rotor technology

The interior-magnet rotor has radially
magnetized and alternately poled magnets.
Because the magnet pole area is smaller
the pole area at the rotor surface, the air
flux density on open circuit is less than the
flux density in the magnet. The magnet is
well protected against centrifugal forces.
a design is recommended for high
high speed motors.

Classification based on rotor technology

Surface-Magnet Rotor
The surface magnet motor can have
magnetized radially or sometimes
circumferentially. An external high
conductivity non-ferromagnetic
cylinder is sometimes used. It protects
PMs against the demagnetizing action of
armature reaction and centrifugal forces,
provides an asynchronous starting
torque, and
acts as a damper.

Classification based on rotor technology

Inset-Magnet Rotor
In the inset-type motors PMs are
radially and embedded in shallow slots.
rotor magnetic circuit can be laminated
made of solid steel. In the first case a
cage winding or external nonferromagnetic
cylinder is required. The q-axis
reactance is greater than that in the daxis.

Classification based on rotor technology

The synchronous reactance in q-axis is greater than that in d-axis. A
asynchronous torque is produced with the aid of both a cage
incorporated in slots in the rotor pole shoes (laminated core) or
solid salient
pole shoes made of mild steel sleeve.

Comparison between surface and buried magnet PMSM

Surface Magnets
Simple motor
Small armature
reaction flux
Permanent magnets
not protected against
armature fields
Eddy-current losses in
permanent magnets
Expensive damper

Buried Magnets
Relatively complicated
motor construction
High armature
reaction flux

Comparison between surface and buried magnet PMSM

New Trends in PMSM

Concentrated windings
- Short end-turns
- Compact winding
- High inductance

New Trends in PMSM

Concentrated windings
- Short end-turns
- Compact winding
- High inductance

New Trends in PMSM

Special winding configuration for fault tolerant PM drives
Electric, magnetic and thermal decoupling of phases.
High inductance can be used to limit a short-circuit

Role of Magnet Thickness in PMSM

Thicker magnets gives higher flux and thus more torque

per amp.
But higher flux also means higher core losses.
Thicker magnets gives lower inductances
Faster respond, but higher PWM current ripple
Thicker magnets makes the motor more resistant to
Thicker magnet also increases the cost significant.
Doubling the thickness will typically only give 5-10% more

Operation Principle

Phase Resistance R
The resistance in the copper used in the phase winding
Phase emf or peak flux-linkage from the PM

Phase inductance Lph

Typically the sum of air-gap, slot and end-turn inductance
Mutual inductance M
The flux linkage coupling from one phase to another with
windings on a three phase machine 1/2 of the airgap flux will
couple to the
other phase.

A three phase PMSM can be modeled by the equivalent
diagram shown
in the figure