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Basics of Exercise

Physiology

Definitions to consider
What is Physical Activity?

Body movement produced by muscle


action that increases energy expenditure.
eg: activities of daily living such as shopping, gardening,
house
keeping, child rearing, work-related activities, etc

What is Exercise?

Planned, structured, repetitive, and


purposeful physical activity

e.g.: training for or performing athletics, sports, or recreational


activities such as jogging, roller-blading, ice skating,
swimming, etc.

Fitness
General Fitness
State of health and well being.

Specific Fitness
A task-oriented definition based on the ability to
perform specific aspects of sports or occupation.

Components of Fitness
Health Related
Body Composition
Cardiovascular
Endurance
Flexibility
Muscular Endurance
Strength

Skill Related
Agility
Coordination
Speed
Reaction Time
Balance
Power

Exercise Physiology?

Definition: the study of how the body


(cell, tissue, organ, system) responds in
function and structure to (1) acute
exercise stress, and (2) chronic physical
activity.

Sports Physiology

Applies the concepts of exercise


physiology to training the athlete and
enhancing the athletes sport
performance.

Fuel for Energy

Fuel for Energy

Carbohydrate
Primary source of energy
All carbohydrate is ultimately broken down to
glucose or stored in the muscle or liver as
glycogen
Dietary sources of starches and sugar to
replenish carbohydrate reserve.

FAT
Large source of energy during prolonged, less
intense exercise.
Rate of energy release is slow.
Less readily available for cellular metabolism
because it must be reduced from its complex
form.

Protein
Minor energy source
Utilized during severe depletion of the other
macronutrients or during starvation.
It can be used to generate free fatty acids
FFAs for cellular energy
Or converted to glucose through the process
of gluconeogenesis.
It can supply 5 to 10% of the energy needed
to sustain prolonged exercise.

Fuel for Energy

Anaerobic vs Aerobic
Metabolism

Fuel for Energy


Anaerobic
Creation of energy through the combustion of
carbohydrate in the absence of oxygen.

Aerobic
The creation of energy through the combustion
of carbohydrates and fats in the presence of
oxygen.

Fuel for Energy


Three Energy Systems
Immediate (ATP Phosphocreatine System)
Short Term (Glycolytic System)
Long Term (Oxidative System)

ATP- Adenosine triphosphate

Immediate System
Simplest of the energy systems.
This process does not require oxygen, but it can
occur in the presence of oxygen.
During the first few seconds of intense muscular
activity (sprinting), adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) is maintained at a relatively constant level
as phosphocreatine (PCr) declines.
Combination of ATP and PCr stores can sustain
the muscles energy needs for up to
approximately 15 sec of an all out sprint.

Short term system


Liberation of energy through the breakdown
of glucose.
Anaerobic glycolysis entails a complex
process involving 10 12 enzymatic reactions
for the breakdown of glycogen to lactic acid.
Does not produce large amount of ATP.
Predominates during early minutes of high
intense exercise (all out sprint for 1 2 min).

Long Term System


Most complex of the three system
Slow to turn on, but has a tremendous energy
yielding capacity
Primary method of energy production during
endurance events.

Interaction of the three


energy systems
Do not work independent of each other.
Each system contributes to the total energy
needs of the body.
One system usually predominates, depending
on the activity.

Percentage of Emphasis on the Three Metabolic Energy Systems


in Training
For Various Running Events
Running
Immediate
Short Term
Long Term
Event
100 m

95

200 m

95

400 m

80

15

800 m

30

65

1,500 m

20

55

25

3,000 m

20

40

40

5,000 m

10

20

70

10,000 m

15

80

Marathon
(42.2 km)

90

Exercise training
The repeated use of exercise to improve
physical fitness.
Permits adaptations within the physiological
systems to minimize the disturbance to
homeostasis resulting from exercise

This means exercise intensity can be


increased for a given distance or duration,
or a given intensity can be sustained longer

What is Exercise Training?

Adaptations to Exercise

Acute adaptations
The changes in human physiology that occur during
exercise or physical activity.
Chronic Adaptations
The alterations in the structure and functions of the
body
that occur in response to the regular completion of
physical activity and exercise.

Types of Training
Resistance Training
Aerobic Training
Anaerobic Training

Resistance Training
Is a form of strength training in which each effort is performed
against a specific opposing force generated by resistance.

Resistance Training
Types of Resistance Training
Isometric Training
Facilitate recovery and reduce muscle atrophy and
strength loss

Free Weights
More motor recruitment
Gain control of the free wgt
Stabilize the wgt
Maintain body balance

Eccentric Training
Maximize gains in strength and size

Variable Resistance Training


Resistance reduced at weakest points and increased
at strongest points.

Isokinetic Training
Contract at maximal force at all points in the range
of motion

Plyometrics
Bridge the gap between speed and strength training

Electrical Stimulation Training


Reduce loss of strength and muscle size

Adaptations to
resistance training
Neural Control of strength gains
Muscle Hypertrophy (Transient vs. Chronic)
Muscle Soreness
Acute Muscle Soreness
Edema

Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness and Injury


Structural Damage
Inflammatory Reaction

Aerobic Training
(Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training)

Adaptations to Aerobic
exercise
Improvements in endurance that accompany
regular aerobic training results from multiple
adaptations to the training stimulus.
Cardiovascular Adaptations

Heart Rate
Stroke Volume
Heart Size
Cardiac Output
Blood Flow
Blood Pressure
Blood Volume

Adaptations to Aerobic
exercise
Respiratory Adaptations:

Pulmonary Ventilation
Pulmonary Diffusion
A V Oxygen Difference

Muscular Adaptations

Muscle Fiber Type


Capillary Supply
Myoglobin Content
Mitochondrial Function

Adaptations to Aerobic
exercise
Metabolic Adaptations
Lactate Threshold
Respiratory Exchange Ratio
Oxygen Consumption

Factors affecting response to


aerobic training
Level of conditioning and VO2 max
Hereditary
Sex
High Responders and Low Responders

Anaerobic Training

Adaptations to
anaerobic exercise
Anaerobic power and capacity
Muscular adaptations
Glycolytic Enzymes

Exercise Prescription

Exercise Prescription
Medical Clearance
Medical Evaluation
Graded Exercise Testing

Exercise Prescription

Mode/Type of Exercise
Frequency
Duration
Intensity

Exercise ProgramME
Warm Up (stretching activities)
Anaerobic / Endurance/ Resistance/ Flexibility
Training
Cool Down (stretching activities)