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The Role of Instruction

Instruction is the academic process of carrying out activities that induce

learning among pupils.

Effective instruction activities can motivate pupils to learn in ways that

make a sustained, substantial, and positive influence on how they think, act,
and feel.

Involve interaction between the teachers and pupils as well as between

pupils and pupils. Teachers not only impart content knowledge and language
skills, but educate pupils on social skills, relationships, self-discipline, values
and beliefs.

Through instruction and learning activities, pupils learn to communicate and

develop confidence and self-esteem.

The role of instruction as a central classroom activity

is to positively develop pupils and equip them with
the knowledge and skills to be able to adjust
themselves to society and the environment.

Classroom Instruction and

Management Practices

Instruction and classroom management are not two separate

entities (Manning & Bucher, 2013).

A classroom that is well managed can act as a suitable setting

for effective instruction and a well planned lesson.

It engages pupils in purposeful and meaningful tasks that will

support good behaviours in the classroom.

i) Effective Classroom Instructions

The primary role of teachers is to plan and deliver instructions

effectively and efficiently.

Thus, teacher need to:

i- select appropriate teaching materials.

ii- devise suitable activities to facilitate pupil learning.
iii- make effective use of classroom management techniques to
ensure a conducive environment for learning with minimal disruptive

Effective classroom instructions thus included having:

a wide array of instructional strategies at your
being skilful at identifying and articulating the proper
sequence and pacing of your content.
being highly skilled in classroom management

ii. Instructional Strategies

Teachers need to employ instructional strategies that make the most of
class time and keep pupils engaged.
This involves:
considering pupils attention span when planning instructional activities.
alternating teacher-centered activities (presentation, teacher modelling),
and pupil-centered activities (practice sheets, independent reading).
familiarising pupils with transition times and procedures between
activities like from small group activities to whole group instruction.

Besides, teachers also need to have a time limit for activities so

that they can be carried out successfully.

Teachers also need to prepare extra activities for pupils who

finish tasks early to keep them actively engaged while the other
pupils complete the task.

Focusing on effective instructional strategies can prevent

academic and behaviour difficulties and thereby facilitate
increased pupil achievement.

Effective Instructional Strategies

Effective teachers have higher rates of positive pupil responses.

Pupils attending to academic tasks cannot at the same time be

engaged in disruptive, off-task behaviour.

Effective instruction minimizes disruptive behaviour through

higher rates of academic engagement.

Instruction that is effective in encouraging high rates of academic

engagement and on-task behaviour is characterized by the following key

Appropriate level of instructional material or task.

If information and materials are beyond pupils current skill level it will
frustrate them and they may engage in behaviours that avoid
engagement in the lesson.

Too easy materials may result in pupils engaging in inappropriate

behaviours out of boredom and lack of challenge.

Pupils who are actively engaged and provided with frequent opportunities
to respond to academic tasks are less disruptive and demonstrate
improved academic skills.


Effective instruction provides feedback for both the pupils and

the teachers in a variety of ways. (discussion)

The feedback serves to motivate both pupils and teachers,

promoting an active learning situation.

Teachers personal qualities

Having a mastery of the subject and the enthusiasm to impart

the knowledge are paramount. (more important than anything

Other essential characteristics are being approachable,

accessible, a sense of humour and having respect for the pupils.

Manning, M. L. , & Bucher. K. T. (2013).
Classroom management: Models.
applications, and cases (3nd ed.). Upper
Saddle River. NJ: Pearson/Merrill
Prentice Hall.