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BEARING

Bearing is a mechanical element, which locates two machine


parts relative to each other and permits the relative motion
between them while carrying the load.
Functions of Bearing:
i. The bearing supports the shaft or the axle and holds it in
correct position with respect to frame or casing.
ii. The bearing ensures free rotation of the shaft or axle with
minimum friction.
iii. The bearing takes up the forces acting on the shaft or the
axle and transmits them to the frame or the casing.

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CLASSFICATION OF BEARING

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TYPES OF BEARING
1.Sliding Contact Bearings:
The bearings in which the contacting surfaces either
make a sliding contact or are separated by a film of
lubricant, are known as sliding contact bearings.
2.Rolling Contact Bearings :
The bearings in which the contacting surfaces have rolling
contact are known as rolling contact bearings.
Due to low friction offered by rolling contact bearings,
they are also known as antifriction bearings.

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TYPES OF SLIDING CONTACT BEARING


Guide Bearings:
In guide bearings, the relative
sliding motion between the two
parts is linear
Examples of the guide bearing
are : guide ways of machine
tools, Bearings:
piston-cylinder, cross-head
Journal
of steam engine, etc.
In journal bearings, the relative sliding motion between the two parts is
rotary while the pressure (or load) on the bearing is perpendicular to
the axis of the shaft (i.e, Journal), as shown in Fig.
The part which is enclosed is called the journal and the part which
encloses the journal is called bearing.

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TYPES OF JOURNAL BEARING

Solid Journal Bearings:


It consists of a block,
generally made of
cast iron, with a hole
for the shaft or pin
(i.e. journal).
The lower portion of the bearing block is extended to form
the base plate with two holes to receive the bolts for
fastening it to the frame.
An oil hole is drilled at the top for the lubrication.
Advantages of solid journal bearing
(i) It is simple in construction.
(ii) Its cost is low.
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SOLID JOURNAL BEARING


Disadvantages of solid journal bearing
(i) There is no provision for adjustment in case of the wear
of the bearing. When the bearing gets worn out, it has to
discarded.
(ii)
The shaft has to be passed into the bearing axially i.e.
endwise. Hence, solid journal bearing is not convenient
to assemble and disassemble.
Applications of solid journal bearing
The solid journal bearing is used when the shaft speed is
not very high and the shaft carries light
loads only.

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TYPES OF JOURNAL BEARING


Bush Bearings:

Consists of two parts : a bearing block and. a bush


A hollow cylindrical part, called bush, is drive fitted in a
hole of the bearing block.
The bush is made of the softer material like : brass,
bronze, babbit, aluminium alloy, etc
Advantages of bush hearing
(i) Instead of making the complete bearing block of the
costly bearing material only bush is made of the bearing
material. This reduces the cost of the bearing.
(ii) In bush bearing, only the bush wears out which can be
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replaced easily.

TYPES OF JOURNAL BEARING

Disadvantages of bush bearing


(i) It is costlier than the solid journal bearing.
(ii) The shaft has to be passed into the bearing
axially i.e. endwise. Hence, this bearing is not
convenient to assemble and disassemble.
Applications of bush bearing
The bush bearings are used when the shaft speed is
high and the shaft carries medium to high loads.

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TYPES OF JOURNAL BEARING

plit Bearing or Pedestal Bearing or Plummer Block:


Consists of:
(i) Bearing block or pedestal
(iii) Split bush
(ii) Bearing cap
(iv) Bolts and nuts
The bush is split into two
halves.The two haves of the
bush are held together by a
bearing cap, which is fastened
to the bearing block or
pedestal by bolts and nuts
The split bush is provided
with collars on either side to
prevent its axial moment.
The split bush and bearing
cap helps in assembling and

Split Bearing or Pedestal Bearing or Plummer


Block
Advantages of split bearing
(i) Split bearing is very convenient for assembling and
disassembling of journal from the bearing.
(ii) It has high load carrying capacity.
Disadvantages of split bearing
(iii)The arrangement is complex and requires more space.
(iv)It is costly,

Application:
Shafts running at high speeds and carrying heavy
loads.
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TYPES OF THRUST BEARING


Thrust Bearings:
The relative Sliding motion between the two parts in
rotary, while the pressure (or load) on the bearing is
parallel to the axis of the shaft.
The thrust bearing supports an axial or thrust load
which is along the axis of the shaft.
The thrust bearings are further classified into two
types .
(i) Footstep or Pivot Bearing
(ii)Collar Bearing
(i) Footstep or Pivot Bearings:
If the shaft terminates at the
bearing surface, as shown in
Fig. 13.7, it is called footstep or
pivot bearing.

TYPES OF THRUST BEARING


(ii)Collar Bearing
In a thrust bearing, if the shaft extends through and
beyond the bearing, as shown in Fig, it is called collar
bearing.

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APPLICATION OF SLIDING CONTACT BEARINGS

Applications of Sliding Contact Bearings:


The sliding contact bearings are used in following
applications :
1. As crankshaft bearings in petrol and diesel
engines;
2. Steam and gas turbines;
3. Marine applications;
4. Large size conveyors; and
5. Large size centrifugal pumps.

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ROLLING CONTACT BEARING


The bearings in which the relative motion between the
contacting surfaces is of rolling type are known as
rolling contact bearings.
A typical rolling contact bearing is shown in Fig. It
consists of four parts:
1. Outer race;
2. Inner race;
3. Rolling elements (balls or rollers); and
4. Separator or Cage.

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TYPES OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARING


Depending upon the type of the rolling elements used,
the rolling contact bearings are classified into two
categories:
1. Ball Bearings
2. Roller Bearings
1.Ball Bearings :
The ball bearings use the spherical balls as the rolling
elements.
The contact between the inner race and the ball or the
outer race and the ball is a point contact.

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DEEP GROOVE BALL BEARING


Single-row deep-groove
ball bearings :
Take radial as well as
thrust loads.
They have high radial
load carrying capacity
and moderate axial
(thrust) load carrying
capacitv.

Double-row deep-groove
ball bearings:
carry heavier radial and
axial (thrust) loads.
They are as good as
placing two single-row
deep-groove ball
bearings adjacent

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ROLLING CONTACT BEARING


Angular contact bearings
have substantial axial
(thrust) load carrying
capacity in one direction
only, in addition to the radial
load carrying capacity.
They are commonly installed
in pairs with each taking
thrust in one direction.

Thrust ball bearings, shown in are used to take


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pure axial (thrust) loads.

ROLLER BEARING
THE ROLLER BEARINGS use the cylindrical
rollers, taper rollers, or spherical rollers as
the rolling elements. The contact between
the inner race and the roller or the outer
race and the roller is line contact. Because
of the nature of contact, the roller bearings
have higher load carrying capacity as
compared to the ball bearings.
The different types roller bearings are
discussed below:
(a) Cylindrical roller bearings
The cylindrical roller bearings, have a
greater radial load carrying capacity than
the ball bearings of the same size because
of the greater contact area.
However, they cannot take axial (thrust)

TYPES OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARING


(b)Needle roller bearings
The needle roller are useful where
radial space is limited.
They have high radial load carrying
capacity.

(c)Taper roller bearings:


The taper roller bearings, consist of
rolling elements that are tapered rollers.
They can carry high radial as well as
axial (thrust) loads.
However, they can take axial (thrust)
load in only one direction, and hence
are used in pairs to take the axial
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(thrust) load in both directions.

TYPES OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARING

TAPER ROLLER SINGLE ROW

TAPER ROLLER DOUBLE ROW

BEARING RETAINERS(CAGE)

CYLINDERICAL ROLLER

NEEDLE ROLLER

TYPES OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARING


(d) Taper roller thrust
bearings:
The taper roller -thrust
bearings are used to take
pure axial (thrust) loads.

COMPARISION OF BALL BEARING AND ROLLER


BEARING
Comparisio
Sr.
No.

n
Parameter

BaIl Bearing

In ball bearings,
spherical balls are
used as the rolling
Elements

Roller Bearing

In roller bearings, cylindrical


rollers, taper rollers, or
spherical
rollers are used as the rolling
elements.

1.

Rolling
Element

2.

In ball bearings, the


In roller bearings, the contact
Nature of contact between
between the inner race and
Contact
the inner race and
roller or
ball or the outer
the outer race and roller is line
race and ball is
contact.
point contact.
Because of point
Load
Because of line contact, the
contact, the load
Carrying
load
carrying capacity of
Capacity
carrying capacity of the roller
the ball bearings is
bearings is high.
low.
Radial
For ball bearings,
For roller bearings, the radial
Dimension the radial dimension dimension is less. Hence, roller
s
is more.
bearings are used where
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M. Patel,in
compactness
is required

3.

4.

APPLICATION OF ROLLING CONTACT BEARING


The rolling contact bearings are used in following
applications :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Industrial and automotive gear boxes;


Electric motors;
Machine tool spindles;
Small size centrifugal pumps; and
Automobile front and rear axles.

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COMPARISION OF SLIDING AND ROLLING


CONTACT BEARING

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