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ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
Chapter 2
The PerUnit System
Nur Diyana kamarudin
Learning Outcomes
Students should be able to
• Identify the symbols and draw the oneline
diagram
• Construct the impedance diagram and find
the per unit values.
• Solve the per unit problems of a singlephase
and threephase circuit.
• Identify the advantages of per unit system.
Power System Representation :
One Line Diagram
• Represent or portray the interconnection of the power system
components – used extensively in power flow studies
• Also referred as Singleline Diagram
• In a one line diagram, lines on paper (or on a computer screen)
represent wires.
• Advantage: Simplicity
– Rather than drawing all three wires in a threephase
system, it is normal to simplify things by representing all
three phases with one line – thus the name one line
diagram
– Equivalent circuit of the components are replaced by their
standard symbols
– The completion of the circuit through the neutral is
omitted.
One Line Diagram  Symbols
twowinding
transformer
current transformer
twowinding
transformer
generator
bus
voltage transformer
capacitor
circuit breaker
transmission line
delta connection
wye connection
circuit breaker
fuse
surge arrestor
static load disconnect
Symbols used in one line diagram (from ANSI and IEEE)
Exercise
Draw a one line diagram for a simple
power system which composes of the
following equipments :
Generator (1 unit), transformer,
transmission line, transformer and load
L7
L6
L2
L1
L3
1 2
3
5 4
L5 L4
generator
transformer
bus coding
circuit breaker
bus
load
line coding
tie line connection
with neighboring
system
transmission line
Oneline diagram  symbols
• The main component of a oneline (or
single line) diagram are : Buses,
Branches, Loads, Machines, 2 winding
Transformers, Switched Shunts,
Reactor and Capacitor Banks.
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Buses are represented as a dot, circle or a thick line.
• The bus name (EAST500) and number (202) are given, as
well as the voltage measured on the line (510.5kV and
1.021V in per unit).
• Final characteristic given is the angle(26.1 degree).
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the bus. Red
indicates 500kV
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Branches are represented as a thin line.
• The real power P, as shown on the branch below, flows
from 478MW to 473MW and the reactive power Q, flows
from 89.9MVA flow to 229.4MVA.
• The power flows from positive number to the negative
number, and the number on top is the real power while
the number on the bottom is the reactive power.
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the bus. Red
indicates 500kV
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Loads are represented as a triangle with the ID
number located inside the triangle.
• The real power, PLOAD, is donated by the number
on top(250MW), and the reactive power QLoad, is
denoted by the number on bottom (100Mvar)
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the load. In
this example, black indicates 230kV
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Machines are represented as a circle with the ID number
located inside the circle.
• The real power PGEN, is denoted by the number on top
(321.0MW), and the reactive power QGEN, is denoted by
the number on bottom (142.3RMVAR). The “R” indicates
this machine is in voltage regulation mode, and it is
controlling a specific bus to a voltage set point which
requires it to generate 142.3MVAR.
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the machine. In
this example, red indicates 500kV.
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Two winding transformer are represented as two
separate windings with gap separating them. The arrow
pointing in at the connection reflects the primary side of
the transformer.
• In this example, the primary voltage (1.0000 in per unit
voltage) is given on the primary side of the transformer
and the secondary voltage (1.0000 in per unit voltage), is
given on the secondary side of the transformer.
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the transformer
and is dictated by the primary side voltage. In this
example, purple indicates 21.6kV
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Reactor bank are represented as an inductor at the end
of a line. The number on the top (or on the left if the
reactor is shown vertical) indicates that the real charge
admittance, G
SHUNT
of the line (3.6MW).
• If you see a “SW” instead of a number, you are looking at
a switched shunt compensator.
• The number on bottom indicates the initial reactive
charge admittance, B
SHUNT
, of the line ( 490.0MVAR )
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the reactor. In
this example, red indicates 500kV
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Capacitor bank are represented as a capacitor at the end
of a line. The number on the top (or on the left if the
capacitor is shown vertical) indicates that the real
charge admittance, G
SHUNT
of the line (0.0MW).
• If you see a “SW” instead of a number, you are looking at
a switched shunt compensator.
• The number on bottom indicates the initial reactive
charge admittance, B
SHUNT
, of the line (1080.0MVAR ).
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the capacitor.
Oneline diagram  explanation
• Switched shunts are represented as either a capacitor or
inductor at the end of a line. The “SW” shown on top (or
on the left if the shunt is shown vertical) indicates that
this unit is a switched shunt compensator. Permanently
installed reactor or capacitor bank.
• The number on bottom indicates the initial reactive
charge admittance, B
INIT
(253.MVAR or – 599.6MVAR)
• The voltage is indicated by the color of the shunt. In this
example, red indicates 21.6kV
One line Diagram
Typical medium sized city transmission and subtransmission system.
Per Unit System
• The per unit system is widely used in
the power system industry to express
values of voltages, currents, powers,
and impedances of various power
equipment.
• It is mainly used for transformers and
AC machines
One line Diagram and Per unit system
• A oneline diagram is a simplified
graphical representation of a three
phase system, used extensively in
power flow studies
• Per unit system used extensively in
oneline diagram to further simplify
the process
PerUnit System
• An interconnected power system typically consists
of many different voltage levels (sizes and nominal
values) given a system containing several
transformers and/or rotating machines.
A simple power system
PerUnit System
• To be able to simplifies the analysis of complex power systems
the perunitsystem which choosing a common set of base
parameter in term of which quantities are defined. The
different voltage levels disappear and the overall system
reduces to a set of impedances.
Perphase, per
unit equivalent
circuit of the
simple power
system
Per Unit System
• Power system quantities such as voltage,
current and impedance are often expressed
in per unit or percent of specified values.
• Per unit value of any quantity (voltage,
current, power, impedance, torque, etc.) is
defined as the ratio of the quantity to its
based expressed as decimal or :
value based
quantity the of value actual
quantity any of value unit per =
Base value
• Specify the base values of current and
voltage, base impedance,
kilovoltamperes can be determined
• Quantities and base value selected
voltage, base value in kilovolts, kV
current, base value in ampere, A
Base values
Generally the following two base values are chosen :
The base power = nominal power of the equipment
The base voltage = nominal voltage of the
equipment
The base current and The base impedance are
determined by the natural laws of electrical circuits
Base values
• Usually, the nominal apparent power
(S) and nominal voltage (V) are taken
as the base values for power (S
base
) and
voltage (V
base
).
• The base values for the current (I
base
)
and impedance (Z
base
) can be
calculated based on the first two base
values.
Base value
• For single phase system
A , current base
V , voltage base
, impedance Base
kV , voltage base
kVA base
A , current Base
LN
LN
1
= O
=

Base value
• For single phase system
 
 

=
=
= O
1 1
1 1
1
2
LN
MVA base MW , power Base
kVA base kW , power Base
MVA
) KV , voltage base (
, impedance Base
Base value  example
Base kVA
3Φ
= 30,000 kVA
and Base kV
LL
= 120 kVA
therefore Base kVA
1Φ
= 30,000 / 3 = 10,000 kVA
and Base kV
LN
= 120 / √3 = 69.2 kVA
value based
quantity the of value actual
quantity any of value unit per =
For actual linetoline voltage 108 kV, the linetoneutral
voltage, V
LN
is 108/ √3 = 62.3
Per unit value  example
and
Perunit voltage = 108/120 (3) OR
= 62.3/69.2 (1)
= 0.9
For threephase power of 18,000 kW,
Perunit power = 18,000/30,000 (3 ) OR
= 6,000/10,000(1)
= 0.6
value based
quantity the of value actual
quantity any of value unit per =
Per unit value
• e.g. in a synchronous generator with
13.8 kV as its nominal voltage, instead
of saying the voltage is 12.42 kV, we
say the voltage is 0.9 p.u.
p. u voltage = 12.42/13.8 = 0.9 p.u
Per Unit System
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base base
S
V
I
V
Z
V
S
I
S V
2
= =
=
exercise
• A generator has an impedance of 2.65
ohms. What is its impedance in per
unit, using bases 500MVA and 22kV
Base value in 3 Circuit
,
3
3
B
B
B
B B B
V
S
I
I V S
=
=
• Usually, the 3phase S
B
or MVA
B
and linetoline V
B
or kV
B
are selected
• I
B
and Z
B
dependent on S
B
and V
B
( )
B
B
B
B
B
B B B
S
V
I
V
Z
Z I V
2
3 /
3
= =
=
base
pu
S
S
S
=
base
pu
I
I
I
=
base
pu
V
V
V
=
base
pu
Z
Z
Z
=
Z
Z
2
base
base
base
pu
V
S
Z
Z = =
pu
base
2
base
pu base
Z
S
V
Z Z = = Z
Per Unit System
Voltage, current, kilovoltamperes and impedance
are quantities often expressed in per unit value
Conversion of Per Unit Values
Transformer Voltage Base
V
1
/V
2
V
b1
V
b2
1
1
2
2 b b
V
V
V
V 


.

\

=
Per Unit System
• The percent impedance
• e.g. in a synchronous generator with 13.8 kV
as its nominal voltage, instead of saying the
voltage is 12.42 kV, we say the voltage is 0.9
p.u.
100% Z
base
actual
%
× =
Z
Z
Example : ThreePhase Transformer
Consider, for example, a threephase twowinding
transformer. The following typical parameters could
be provided by the manufacturer:
Nominal power = 300 kVA total for three phases
Nominal frequency = 60 Hz
Winding 1: connected in wye, nominal
voltage = 25 kV RMS linetoline
resistance 0.01 pu, leakage reactance = 0.02 pu
Winding 2: connected in delta, nominal
voltage = 600 V RMS linetoline
resistance 0.01 pu, leakage reactance = 0.02 pu
Magnetizing losses at nominal voltage in % of
nominal current:
Resistive 1%, Inductive 1%
Example : ThreePhase Transformer
Base power 300 kVA/3 = 100e3 VA/phase
Base voltage 25 kV/sqrt(3) = 14434 V RMS
Base current 100e3/14434 = 6.928 A RMS
Base impedance 14434/6.928 = 2083 Ω
Base resistance 14434/6.928 = 2083 Ω
Base inductance 2083/(2π*60)= 5.525 H
The base values for each singlephase transformer are first
calculated: For winding 1:
Example : ThreePhase Transformer
For winding 2:
Base power
300 kVA/3 = 100e3 VA
Base voltage 600 V RMS
Base current 100e3/600 = 166.7 A RMS
Base impedance 600/166.7 = 3.60 Ω
Base resistance 600/166.7 = 3.60 Ω
Base inductance 3.60/(2π*60) = 0.009549 H
p.u. to SI
The value of the winding resistance and leakage
inductances expresses in SI units are
For winding 1: R1=0.01 * 2083 = 20.83 Ω
L1 = 0.02 * 5.525 = 0.1105 H
For winding 2: R2 = 0.01 * 3.60 = 0.0360 Ω
L1 = 0.02 * 0.009549 = 0.191 mH
p.u. to SI
For the magnetizing branch, magnetizing losses of 1%
resistive and 1% inductive mean a magnetizing resistance
Rm of 100 pu and a magnetizing inductance Lm of 100 pu.
Therefore, the values expressed in SI units referred to
winding 1 are
Rm = 100*2083 = 208.3 kΩ
Lm = 100*5.525 = 552.5 H
Excercise
1. Calculate base voltage for each region
excercise
• Region 1
Vbase1 = 13.8 kV
• Region 2
Vbase2 = Vbase1(110kV/13.8kV) = 110 kV
• Region 3
Vbase3 = Vbase2(14.4kV/120kV) = 13.2 kV
Excercise
2. Calculate corresponding base impedances for each region
exercise
• Region 1
• Region 2
• Region 3
Per Unit in 3 Circuit
• Simplified:
– Concerns about using phase or line
voltages are removed in the perunit
system
– Actual values of R, X
C
and X
L
for lines,
cables, and other electrical equipment
typically phase values.
– It is convenient to work in terms of base
VA (base voltamperes)
Change of Base
• The impedance of individual generators &
transformer, are generally in terms of
percent/per unit based on their own ratings.
• Impedance of transmission line in ohmic
value
• When pieces of equipment with various
different ratings are connected to a system,
it is necessary to convert their impedances
to a per unit value expressed on the same
base.
Change of Base
• In other word, since all impedances in any
one part of the a system must be expressed
on the same impedance base when making
computations, it is necessary to have a
means of converting perunit impedances
from one based to another.
Change of base
( )
O
O



.

\

= = Z
V
S
Z
Z
Z
old
B
old
B
old
B
old
pu
2
( )
O
O



.

\

= = Z
V
S
Z
Z
Z
new
B
new
B
new
B
new
pu
2
then , value actual is Z if and , V base voltage &
S base power on the impedance unit per the be Z
old
B
old
B
old
pu
O
new
B
new
B
V base voltage new &
S base power new on the impedance unit per new the be
new
pu
Z
1
2
Change of Base
Change of base
( )


.

\

 =
O
old
B
2
old
B
old
pu
S
V
Z Z
From 1 and 2
2


.

\



.

\

=
new
B
old
B
old
B
new
B
old
pu
new
pu
V
V
S
S
Z Z


.

\

=
old
B
new
B
old
pu
new
pu
S
S
Z Z
Then, the relationship between the old and the
new per unit value is obtained as
If the voltage base are the same,
Change of Base
Example
The reactance of a generator designated X” is given as
0.25 per unit based on the generator’s nameplate
rating of 18 kV, 500 MVA. The base for calculations is
20kV, 100 MVA. Find X” on the new base
2


.

\



.

\

=
new
B
old
B
old
B
new
B
old
pu
new
pu
V
V
S
S
Z Z
25 . 0 Z
old
pu
= kV 18 V
old
B
=
MVA 500 S
old
B
=
kV 20 V
new
B
=
MVA 100 S
new
B
=
Example
unit per 0405 . 0
20
18
500
100
25 . 0 " X Z
2
new
pu
=

.

\


.

\

= =
25 . 0 Z
old
pu
=
kV 18 V
old
B
=
MVA 500 S
old
B
=
kV 20 V
new
B
=
MVA 100 S
new
B
=
Change of base
4. Calculate the p.u. resistances and
inductances at G1 and T1
Exercise
R
G1,pu
= 0.1 per unit
X
G1,pu
= 0.9 per unit
R
T1,pu
= 0.01 per unit
X
T1,pu
= 0.05 per unit
Excercise
5. Calculate per unit value for resistance and inductance of
transmission line
• Resistance of transmission line
• Inductance of transmission line
Exercise
6. Calculate per unit value for resistance and inductance of
T2 and M2
Exercise
unit per 119 . 0
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 4 . 14
) 05 . 0 ( X
unit per 238 . 0
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 4 . 14
) 01 . 0 ( R
2
pu , 2 T
2
pu , 2 T
=


.

\



.

\

=
=


.

\



.

\

=
unit per 405 . 2
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 8 . 38
) 05 . 0 ( X
unit per 219 . 0
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 8 . 38
) 01 . 0 ( R
2
pu , 2 M
2
pu , 2 M
=


.

\



.

\

=
=


.

\



.

\

=
At T2
At M2
Exercise
7. Plot perphase equivalent circuit diagram of the simple
power system above.
PerUnit System
• the perunitsystem which choosing a common set of
base parameter in term of which quantities are defined.
The different voltage levels disappear and the overall
system reduces to a set of impedances.
Perphase, per unit equivalent circuit of the simple power system
G1’s
impedance
T1’s
impedance
Transmission
line’s impedance
T2’s
impedance
Motor’s
impedance
Writing Node Equations for
Equivalent Circuit
• Once the perphase, per unit
equivalent circuit of a power system is
created, it may be used to find the
voltages, currents, and powers present
at various points in a power system.
• Most common technique used to solve
such circuit is nodal analysis
Writing Node Equations for
Equivalent Circuit
The simple three
phase power
system
containing three
busses connected
by three
transmission
lines, generator
to bus 1, a load
to bus 2 and a
motor to bus 3.
Draw the
impedance
diagram and
respective nodes
Writing Node Equations for
Equivalent Circuit
The diagram showing current sources at nodes 1, 2
and 3; all other equipments are admittance
Writing Node Equations for
Equivalent Circuit
Writing Node Equations for
Equivalent Circuit
Advantages
• Transformer equivalent circuit can be
simplified by properly specifying base
quantities.
– Give a clear idea of relative magnitudes of
various quantities such as voltage,
current, power and impedance.
– Avoid possibility of making serious
calculation error when referring quantities
from one side of transformer to the other.
Advantages
• Perunit impedances of electrical
equipment of similar type usually lie
within a narrow numerical range when
the equipment ratings are used as base
values.
– Manufacturers usually specify the
impedances of machines and transformers
in perunit or percent in nameplate
rating.
Advantages
• The circuit laws are valid in per unit
systems, and the power and voltage
equation are simplified since the
factor √3 and 3 are eliminates in the
perunit systems.
• Ideal for the computerized analysis and
simulation of complex power system
problems.
Advantages
• Why Use the Per Unit System Instead of the Standard SI Units?
• Here are the main reasons for using the per unit system:
• When values are expressed in pu, the comparison of electrical quantities with their "normal" values is
straightforward.
• For example, a transient voltage reaching a maximum of 1.42 pu indicates immediately that this voltage
exceeds the nominal value by 42%.
• The values of impedances expressed in pu stay fairly constant whatever the power and voltage ratings.
• For example, for all transformers in the 3 kVA to 300 kVA power range, the leakage reactance varies
approximately between 0.01 pu and 0.03 pu, whereas the winding resistances vary between 0.01 pu and
0.005 pu, whatever the nominal voltage. For transformers in the 300 kVA to 300 MVA range, the leakage
reactance varies approximately between 0.03 pu and 0.12 pu, whereas the winding resistances vary
between 0.005 pu and 0.002 pu.
• Similarly, for salient pole synchronous machines, the synchronous reactance Xd is generally between 0.60
and 1.50 pu, whereas the subtransient reactance X'd is generally between 0.20 and 0.50 pu.
• It means that if you do not know the parameters for a 10 kVA transformer, you are not making a major
error by assuming an average value of 0.02 pu for leakage reactances and 0.0075 pu for winding
resistances.
• The calculations using the per unit system are simplified. When all impedances in a multivoltage power
system are expressed on a common power base and on the nominal voltages of the different
subnetworks, the total impedance in pu seen at one bus is obtained by simply adding all impedances in
pu, without taking into consideration the transformer ratios.
Review
• Study the examples.
• Try to solve the problems in your
tutorials.
Impedance Diagram
G1
Load A
1
G2
Load B
G3
2
G4
T1 T2
G2 G1 G3 G4
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