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PLC

(Programmable Logic Controller)

SUBMITTED BY
MOHIT GUPTA
BTECH 4th YEAR ECE.

Industrial Automation

computers are used in factories...

Robotic arm, CNC, injection molding

Industrial Automation

Ice cream sandwich machines

Industrial Automation

Today this is usually accomplished with


Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)

PLCs are the answer to a variety of needs:


durability, reliability, flexibility, scalability,
reprogrammability, etc...

Programmable Logic Controllers


( Definition according to NEMA standard ICS3-1978)

A digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a


programming memory for the internal storage of
instructions for implementing specific functions such as
logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic to
control through digital or analog modules, various types
of machines or process.

History

Machines become autonomous.

Common method: relay logic

Relay Logic

Conditional logic can be represented in


terms of contacts and coils.
current

Contact: A simple input switch.

Coil: An output load, e.g., a relay or motor.

Symbolic representation called ladder


logic.

Relay Logic

To clarify: Ladder Logic is a notation


originally used to describe & document
relay logic configurations.
Later became the basis for PLC
programming languages

Ladder Logic

Power supply rails drawn as parallel


vertical lines on left and right

Connection of rails implies current will flow

An output is on when a connection is


completed and current flows through the
loads coil

Ladder Logic

Simple always on load:

[Always_On = 1] note: sometimes


illegal

Boring... Load controlled by a single contact:


[Switch_Con = Switch]

Programmable Controller Development


1968
1969
1974

1976
1977

Programmable concept developed


Hardware CPU controller, with logic
instructions, 1 K of memory and 128 I/O
points
Use of several (multi) processors within a
PLC - timers and counters; arithmetic
operations; 12 K of memory
and 1024 I/O points
Remote input/output systems introduced
Microprocessors - based PLC introduced

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Programmable Controller Development


Intelligent I/O modules developed
Enhanced communications facilities
Enhanced software features
(e.g. documentation)
Use of personal microcomputers as
programming aids
1983
Low - cost small PLCs introduced
1985 on Networking of all levels of PLC, computer
and machine using SCADA software.
1980

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PLC

The first PLC was invented by Dick Morely


in 1978.

Morely designed a computer with three


components: a processor, memory, and a
logic solver.

[The logic solver] allowed us to get the


speed we needed in this applicationspecific computer to solve the perceptually
simple problem of several cabinets full of
relay wiring. -Morely

The first commercial successful PLC, the 184, was


introduced in 1973 which was designed by Michael
Greenberg.

Step7-1200

S7-1200 PLC

1.Power connector
2.Memory card slot under the top door
3.Removable user wiring connectors
4. Status LEDs for on board I/O
5.Profinet connector

Major Components of a Common PLC


POWER
SUPPLY

From
SENSORS
Pushbuttons,
contacts,
limit switches,
etc.

I M
N O
P D
U U
T L
E

O M
PROCESSOR

U
T
P
U
T

O
D
U
L
E

To
OUTPUT
contactors,
alarms
etc.

PROGRAMMING
DEVICE

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Major Components of a Common PLC


POWER SUPPLY
Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC
components
I/O MODULES
Provides signal conversion and isolation between the
internal logic- level signals inside the PLC and the
fields high level signal.

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Major Components of a Common PLC


PROCESSOR
Provides intelligence to command and govern the
activities of the entire PLC systems.
PROGRAMMING DEVICE
used to enter the desired program that will determine
the sequence of operation and control of process
equipment or driven machine.

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While the PLC is running, the scanning process


includes the following four phases, which are repeated
continuously as individual cycles of operation:
PHASE 1

Read Inputs
Scan
PHASE 2

Program
Execution
PHASE 3

Diagnostics/
Comm
PHASE 4

Output
Scan
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PHASE 1 Input Status scan


A PLC scan cycle begins with the CPU reading the
status of its inputs.
PHASE 2 Logic Solve/Program Execution

The application program is executed using the status


of the inputs
PHASE 3 Logic Solve/Program Execution

Once the program is executed, the CPU performs


diagnostics and communication tasks
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PHASE 4 - Output Status Scan


An output status scan is then performed, whereby the
stored output values are sent to actuators and other
field output devices. The cycle ends by updating the
outputs.

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PROGRAMMING
Normally Open
(NO)

Normally Closed
(NC)

Power flows through these contacts when they are closed. The
normally open (NO) is true when the input or output status bit
controlling the contact is 1. The normally closed (NC) is true
when the input or output status bit controlling the contact is 0.

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Coils

Coils represent relays that are energized when power flows to


them. When a coil is energized it causes a corresponding
output to turn on by changing the state of the status bit controlling
the output to 1. That same output status bit maybe used to control
normally open or normally closed contact anywhere in the program.

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Boxes

Boxes represent various instructions or functions that are


Executed when power flows to the box. Some of these
Functions are timers, counters and math operations.

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AND OPERATION
A

Each rung or network on a ladder program represents


a logic operation. In the rung above, both inputs A and B
must be true (1) in order for the output C to be true (1).

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OR OPERATION
A

input
B

In the rung above, it can be seen that either input A or B


is be true (1), or both are true, then the output C is true (1).

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NOT OPERATION
A

input

In the rung above, it can be seen that if input A is be true (1),


then the output C is true (0) or when A is (0), output C is 1.

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Inside a PLC
Communications
Port

I
n
p
u
t

C
i
r
c
u
i
t
s

Central
Processor
Unit
(CPU)

High
Voltage
Isolation
Barrier

O
u
t
p
u
t

Isolation
Barrier

MEMORY
data

program
Low Voltage
AC Power Supply

or

C
i
r
c
u
i
t
s

DC Power Supply

CR

High
Voltage

PLCs

Widely Applied in Every Industry

Were Developed to Simplify the Implementation of


Control Automation Systems in Plants and Assembly
Lines

Designed to Minimize the Number of Control Relays


in a Process and Maximize the Ways Relays can be
Used

First Applied to Automobile Industry in the Late


1960s

Flexible, Reliable and Low Cost

PLC Components

I/O Modules

Input Modules: Input Signals can be AC or


DC, Analog or Digital

Output Modules: Outputs are either AC or


DC Analog Signals (Although it is possible
to Construct Digital Outputs)

Modern PLCs have Expansion Ports to


Increase the Number of Available Inputs
and Outputs

Examples of I/O Signals

Inputs:
Pushbutton
Relay
DC

Contact Output

Voltage Level

Digital

Logic Signal (+5V or 0 V, etc)

Outputs:
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(Energizing or Grounding an Input)

V ac

120

V ac

120

Vdc

etcetera

Relays

In General, Relays Transform a Control


Signal into a Control Action

Relays Provide:
Isolation

Between Input and Output

Leverage

(Small Signal Can Control


Large Action)

Automation

(Minimize Human
Interaction with a Control Process)

Relay Components

Basic Relay Symbols

Relay Applications

Relays can be Designed to Perform Many


Functions
Detect

Out of Limit Conditions on


Voltages and Currents

Start

Motors

Prevent
Control
Adjust

Motors from Over Heating


Assembly Lines

Lighting

INTRODUCTION TO PLCS
Advantages of PLCs

Less wiring.
Wiring between devices and relay contacts are done
in the PLC program.
Easier and faster to make changes.
Trouble shooting aids make programming easier
and reduce downtime.
Reliable components make these likely to operate
for years before failure.

Areas of Application

Manufacturing / Machining

Food / Beverage

Metals

Power

Mining

Petrochemical / Chemical

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PLC Operating Cycle


Four Steps in the PLC Operations
Input Scan
Scan the state of the Inputs
Program Scan
Processes the program logic

START
Housekeeping

Input
Scan

Output
Scan

Output Scan
Energize/de-energize the outputs

Program
Scan

Housekeeping
This step includes communications, Internal
Diagnostics, etc.
The steps are continually repeated - processed in
a loop