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The political environment comprises

with three vital political institutions:-



A legislature is a type of representative
assembly with the power to create and
change laws.

The law created by a legislature is

called legislation or statutory law.

Legislatures are known by many

names, the most common being
parliament and congress.
A legislature with only one house is
called unicameral.

A legislature with two separate

chambers, usually described as an
upper house and a lower house is called
Legislature of the union which is called
parliament, consists of president and
two Houses, known as Council Of
States (Rajya Sabha) and House of the
People (Lok Sabha).

Each House Of Parliament has to

meet within six months of its previous
sitting or meeting.
The Lok Sabha is the lower house,
elected by the people of India from
individual, simple majority
The Rajya Sabha is the upper house,
elected by the State Legislatures
which in turn are directly elected by
the people on the same lines as the
Lok Sabha.
The Rajya Sabha is not subject
to dissolution.

The Lok Sabha is subject to

dissolution once in five years from
the date appointed for its first
Policy Making

Law Making

Approval Of Budgets

Executive Control

To act as a Mirror Of Public Opinion

All legislation requires consent of both

the Houses of Parliament.
Parliamentary committees

Standing committees

Ad Hoc committees
Standing committees :-Members are
elected or appointed every year or
periodically and their work goes on,
more or less, on a continuous basis.
Ex: the Committee on Petitions, the Committee of
Privileges and the Rules Committee,etc.

Ad Hoc committees :- Members are

appointed for a specific purpose and
they cease to exist when they finish
the task assigned to them and
submit a report.
Ex: Railway Convention Committee was appointed for specific
For every state, there is a
legislature which consists of
Governor and one House or two
In Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir,
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar
Pradesh, there are two Houses
Known as Legislative council and
Legislative assembly.
In remaining states, there is
only one House known as
Legislative Assembly.

State Legislature has exclusive

powers over subjects
enumerated in list of 17th
schedule of the constitution.
Financial powers of legislature
include authorization of all
expenditure, taxation of the state
Legislative Assembly alone has
power to originate Money bills.

Legislative council can make only

recommendations in respect of
changes of money bills from the

State legislature ensures that

grants sanctioned by legislature
are properly utilized.
Every aspects of business from its
birth till death is covered under the
Legislature ensures that business
earns fair rate of profits and are
distributed in a beneficial manner to
the society.
Legislature ensures in attainment of
business interests, the interest of
each person is fully protected.