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System is a Set of detailed methods, procedures,

and routines established or formulated to
carry out a specific activity, perform a duty, or
solve a problem.
• Input: inputs are the elements that are entered in system for processing
• Processor:Processor is the element which actually transforms input
into output

• Output: Anything that comes out of a system. Output can be meaningful

information and it can appear in a variety of forms -- as characters, as pictures, and
as printed pages.

• Control:To monitor output,adequate control is required.It is a system

that manages input, output and processors
• Feedback: the process in which part of the output of a system is
returned to its input in order to regulate its further output
• System Boundary:The boundary defines the difference between
the environment and the system; the correct boundary is a function of the
problem under consideration.

• Environment:The environment represents everything that is

important to understanding the functioning of the system, but is not part of
the system. It includes: competition, people, technology, capital, raw
materials, data, regulation and opportunities.
• Organization:a system is an organized collection of parts that are
highly integrated in order to accomplish an overall goal. The system has
various inputs which are processed to produce certain outputs, that
together, accomplish the overall goal desired by the organization.It implies
structure and order of execution of processes

• Interaction:Interaction in system refers to communication between

sub process .Various elements of a system interact with other elements to
achieve a common goal of organozation.

• Interdependence:It means the elements of system are

dependent on each other.The various subsystems of a system depend on
one another for sharing data.
• Integration:king connections. Integration is the creation of links
between previously separate computer systems, applications, services or

• Central Objective:The organization set an objective to be

achieved.The employees of the organization must be aware of the objective
to be achieved.
• The study of an activity or procedure to
determine the desired end and the most
efficient method of obtaining this end.
• The analysis of the role of a proposed system
and the identification of the requirements that
it should meet. System analysis is the starting
point for system design
• A programmer or consultant who designs and
manages the development of business applications.
Typically, systems analysts are more involved in
design issues than in day-to-day work.
However, systems analyst is a somewhat arbitrary
title, so different companies define the role differently.
• The analyst conducts a system study ,identifies
objectives and determine procedures to achieve the
• One who is engaged in systems analysis involving
identification, measurement, and recommendation of system
alternatives to management for final selection. After an
intensive investigation of the information needs of the different
levels of management, the systems analyst should identify the
available system alternatives. These include:
(1) acquisition of a new system
(2) modification of the old system;
(3) use of a third party's services, such as a timeshare outside
service bureau, which could eliminate or continue the use of
the old system. For each available alternative, feasibility
studies should be conducted before a recommendation is made
to management for final selection.
• The system analyst is the person (or persons) who guides
through the development of an information system. In
performing these tasks the analyst must always match the
information system objectives with the goals of the
organization.Role of System Analyst differs from organization
to organization.
• Most common Responsibilities of System Analyst
are following:
1) System analysis
It includes system's study in order to get facts about business activity. It is
about getting information and determining requirements. Here the
responsibility includes only requirement determination, not the design of
the system.

2) System analysis and design:

Here apart from the analysis work, Analyst is also responsible for the
designing of the new system/application.

3) Systems analysis, design, and programming:

Here Analyst is also required to perform as a worker, where he actually
works in process to implement the design of the proposed application.
• Due to the various responsibilities that a system
analyst requires to handle, he has to be multifaceted
person with varied skills required at various stages of
the life cycle. In addition to the technical know-how
of the information system development a system
analyst should also have the following knowledge.:

• Business knowledge: As the analyst might have to develop

any kind of a business system, he should be familiar with the
general functioning of all kind of businesses.
• Interpersonal skills: Such skills are required at various stages
of development process for interacting with the users and
extracting the requirements out of them
• Problem solving skills: A system analyst should have enough
problem solving skills for defining the alternate solutions to
the system and also for the problems occurring at the various
stages of the development process.
The System Analyst performs the following

• Problem investigator:The analyst studies the problem in

detail.He tries to find out the prblem by visiting different
departments and by interviewing different users

• Problem solver:after investigating problem ,the next role of system

analyst is to look for alternative solutions for the problem .He determines
how people,methods and technology can improve the current system.

• System designer:The analyst creates a detailed physical(current) and

logical(proposed) system.he basically generates a blueprint of the proposed
• Motivator:The analyst motivates the users to participate in development
of new system,This helps to understand user’s feeling about the proposed

• Project manager: The analyst monitors overall operations in the

organization.He works with project leader to manage project properly.