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Acids, Bases and Salts

Ch-3

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Contents

Acids
Bases
Salts
Indicators

Acids

Contents

Definitions
Classification
Arrhenius and Lowry-Bronsteds Theory
Hydronium Ions from Acids
Preparation
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Uses

Next

Definitions
Acids:
It is a chemical compound containing one or more replaceable hydrogen ions
which are completely or partially replaced by a metallic element or a group of
elements acting as a metal to produce salt

Basicity of Acid:
It s the number of replaceable hydrogen atoms present in one molecule of an acid.

Hydracid:
It is an acid containing hydrogen atoms and an electronegative element other than
oxygen is known as hydracid.

Oxyacid:
It is an acid containing hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms is known as oxyacid.

Heat of Neutralization:
The amount of heat released when 1 gram equivalent of an acid and a base is
completely neutralized is known as heat of neutralization.

Contents

Acids

Definitions
Strong Acids:
An acid which is completely ionized into its constituent ions when dissolved in
water (>30%) thereby producing large concentration of H+ ions in the solution is
known as strong acid.

Weak Acids:
An acid which is partially ionized into its constituent ions when dissolved in water
(<30%) thereby producing small concentration of H+ ions in the solution is known
as weak acid.

Concentrated Acid:
It is an acid containing more acid than water in its aqueous solution.

Dilute Acid:
It is an acid containing less acid than water in its aqueous solution. [less than 1
mole/litre]

Contents

Acids

Previous

* - Anhydrous acetic acid on cooling forms crystals of glacial acetic acid


# - Acetic Acid has four hydrogen atoms in it, but ionizes in aqueous solution to produce one hydrogen ion per molecule of the acid

Classification

On Basis of Source:

On Basis of Molecular Composition of Acids:

Organic Acids Derived from plants


Inorganic Acids - Derived from minerals
Hydracids HCl, HBr, HI, etc.
Oxyacids HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 ,etc.

On Basis of Strength of Acids:


Depends on concentration of hydronium ions present in an aqueous solution of an acid.
Strong Acid HNO3 , H2SO4 , HCl [Contains only ions]

On Basis of Concentration of Acids:

Contents

Weak Acid CH3COOH, Acetic*, Citric, Carbonic and Formic Acid [Contains molecules
and ions]

Concentrated Acid
Dilute Acid

On Basis of Basicity of Acids:

Monobasic Acid produces one hydrogen ion per molecule of the acid, forming one type
of salt. Ex. HCl, HI, HBr, HNO3, CH3COOH#, etc.

Dibasic Acid produces two hydrogen ion per molecule of the acid, forming an acid salt
and a normal salt. Ex. H2SO4, H2CO3, H2SO3 , etc.

Tribasic Acid produces three hydrogen ion per molecule of the acid, forming two acid
salts and a normal salt. Ex. H3PO4, etc.

Acids

Arrhenius and Lowry-Bronsteds Theory


Arrhenius Theory: Acids are substances which dissociate in
aqueous solution to give H+ ions. Strong acids dissociate almost
completely while weak acids dissociate partially.
Lowry-Bronsteds Theory: Acids are proton donors.

Contents

HCl

Acids

H+ + Cl-

Next

Hydronium Ions from Acids


Reaction:

WATER MOLECULE
2 Lone pairs of Electrons

Contents

Acids

Hydronium Ions from Acids


The Water Molecule:
Water is a polar covalent molecule and exhibits charge separation.
The H atom of water carries a slight positive charge and the O atom a slight
negative charge.
Oxygen atom in water have two lone pairs of electrons not shared with any
other atom.
A proton i.e. H+ ion released from the acid adds on to the lone pair of
electrons of the oxygen atom of the water molecule [oxygen atom in H2O has
a slight negative charge].
The H+ ion accepts the lone pair of electrons forming a coordinate covalent
bond [ O H ]

Contents

Acids

Previous

Preparation
From Non-Metals: Hydrogen + Non-Metal (halogen)

H2 + Cl2
H2 + I2

2HCl
2HI

From Acidic Oxides: Acidic Oxide+ Water

CO2 + H2O
SO2 + H2O
SO3 + H2O
P 2 O 5 + H2 O

Acid

H2CO3
H2SO3
H2SO4
H3PO4

From Salts: Normal Salt + Sulphuric Acid (conc.)


<200C
Volatile Salt

Acid

Acid Salt + Displaced

KNO3 + H2SO4 <200C KHSO4 + HNO3


NaCl + H2SO4
NaHSO4 + HCl

By Oxidation of Non-Metals:
Sulphur + Nitric Acid
Sulphuric Acid + Water + Nitrogen Dioxide
S + 6HNO3
H2SO4 + 2H2O + 6NO2

Contents

Acids

Physical Properties
Sour in taste in aqueous solution
Highly Corrosive: Mineral Acids (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl)
Action on Indicators:
Litmus
Litmus (Alkaline)
Methyl Orange
Methyl Orange
(alkaline)
Phenolphthalein
Phenolphthalein
(alkaline)

Contents

Acids

Red
Red
Pink
Pink
Colourless
Colourless

Chemical Properties
Test for Hydronium Ions

Neutralization Reaction: Acid + Base

CuO + H2SO4
NaOH + HCl

CuSO4 + H2O
NaCl + H2O

Salt + Water
H+ [aq.] + OH- [aq.]

Reaction of Active Metals with Acids:


Acid (dil.) Salt + Hydrogen

Zn + 2HCl

H2O [l]

Active Metal +

ZnCl2 + H2

Reactions of Chlorides, Nitrates, Bicarbonates and Carbonates


with Acid:
Salt [1] + Less Volatile
Acid [1]
Salt [2] + More Volatile Acid [2]

Contents

NaNO3 + H2SO4 (conc.) <200C KHSO4 + HNO3


<200C
NaCl + H2SO4 (conc.)
NaHSO4 + HCl
2NaHCO3 + H2SO4 (dil.)
Na2SO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2
Na2CO3 + 2HCl (dil.)
NaCl + H2O + CO2

Acids

unstable
H2CO3
formed

Uses
1. Eye-Wash

- Boric acid

2. Food preservation - Citric Acid


3. Ink-Stain Remover - Oxalic Acid
4. Flavouring Drinks

- Carbonic Acid

5. Baking Powder

- Tartaric Acid

6. Cooking

- Acetic Acid [ vinegar ]

7. Pickling of Metals

Contents

Acids

- Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)

Bases

Contents

Definitions
Classification
Arrhenius and Lowry-Bronsteds Theory
Hydroxyl Ions from Alkali
Preparation
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Uses

Next

Definitions
Bases:
Metallic oxides and hydroxides which on reaction with acids produce salt and
water as the only products are known as bases.

Acidity of Base:
It s the number of replaceable hydroxyl ions produced per molecule of a
base when it is dissolved in water.

Heat of Neutralization:
The amount of heat released when 1 gram equivalent of an acid and a base
is completely neutralized is known as heat of neutralization.

Contents

Bases

Definitions
Strong Base:
A base which is completely ionized into its constituent ions when dissolved in
water (>30%) thereby producing large concentration of OH- ions in the
solution is known as strong base.

Weak Base:
An base which is partially ionized into its constituent ions when dissolved in
water (<30%) thereby producing small concentration of OH- ions in the
solution is known as weak base.

Concentrated Alkali:
It is an acid containing more alkali than water in its aqueous solution.

Dilute Alkali:
It is an acid containing less alkali than water in its aqueous solution [less
than 1 mole/litre].

Contents

Bases

Previous

Classification

On Basis of Strength of Bases:


Depends on concentration of hydroxyl ions present in an aqueous solution of an alkali.
Strong Alkali NaOH, KOH, LiOH [Contains solute molecules in addition to water
molecules]
Weak Alkali NH4OH, Ca(OH)2 [Contains molecules and ions]

On Basis of Concentration of Acids:

On Basis of Acidity of Bases:

Contents

Concentrated Alkali
Dilute Alkali

Monoacidic Base produces one hydroxyl ion per molecule of the water-soluble base,
dissociating in one step in aqueous solution. Ex. NaOH, KOH, etc.
Diacidic Base produces two hydroxyl ion per molecule of the water-soluble base,
dissociating in one step in aqueous solution. Ex. Ca(OH) 2, Zn(OH)2, etc.
Triacidic Base produces three hydroxyl ion per molecule of the water-soluble base,
dissociating in one step in aqueous solution. Ex. Al(OH) 3, Fe(OH)3, etc.

Bases

Arrhenius and Lowry-Bronsteds Theory


Arrhenius Theory: Bases are substances which dissociate in
aqueous solution to give OH- ions. Strong bases dissociate almost
completely while weak bases dissociate partially.
Lowry-Bronsteds Theory: Bases are proton acceptors.

Contents

NH3 + H+

Bases

NH4+

Next

Hydroxyl Ions from Alkali


Reaction:

Contents

Bases

Hydroxyl Ions from Alkali


The Water Molecule:
Water is a polar covalent molecule and exhibits charge separation.
The H atom of water carries a slight positive charge and the O atom a slight
negative charge.
Oxygen atom in water have two lone pairs of electrons not shared with any
other atom.
A proton i.e. H+ ion released from the water adds on to the lone pair of
electrons of the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule [ nitrogen atom in
NH3 has a slight negative charge ].
The H+ ion accepts the lone pair of electrons forming a coordinate covalent
bond [ N H ]

[ Ammonia is a polar covalent compound with a large difference in electronegativity


between the nitrogen atom and the hydrogen atoms in the ammonia molecule ]

Contents

Bases

Previous

Preparation
From Metals: Hydrogen + Oxygen

4Na + O2
2Mg + O2

Base [Basic Oxide]

2Na2O
2MgO

From Basic Oxides: Basic Oxide+ Water

K2O + H2O 2KOH


Na2O + H2O NaOH

From Salts: Salt soln. + Alkali

AlCl3 + 3NaOH
FeSO4 + NaOH

2PbNO3
2ZnNO3
2CuNO3

Bases

Normal Salt + ppt. Basic Hydroxide

3NaCl + Al(OH)3
Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2

By Decomposition of Salts:

Contents

Base

2PbO + O2 + 4NO2
2ZnO + O2 + 4NO2
2CuO + O2 + 4NO2

Physical Properties
Bitter in taste in aqueous solution
Highly Corrosive: Caustic Alkalis (KOH, NaOH)
Action on Indicators:
Litmus
Litmus (Alkaline)
Methyl Orange
Methyl Orange
(alkaline)
Phenolphthalein
Phenolphthalein
(alkaline)

Contents

Bases

Blue
Blue
Yellow
Yellow
Colourless
Colourless

Chemical Properties
Test for Hydroxyl Ions

Neutralization Reaction: Acid + Base

CuO + H2SO4
NaOH + HCl

CuSO4 + H2O
NaCl + H2O

Salt + Water
H+ [aq.] + OH- [aq.]

H2O [l]

Alkalis react with Ammonium Salts to Liberate Ammonia:


Ammonium Salt + Base [1]
Salt [2] + Base [2]

NH4Cl + 2NaOH

NaCl + NH3 + H2O

NH4OH

Reactions with certain metallic salt solutions:


Salt + Base [aq.]
Salt [2] + Insoluble Hydroxide

Contents

CuCl2 + 2NaOH
FeCl3+ 3NaOH
ZnSO4 + 2NaOH

Bases

2NaCl + Cu(OH)2
3NaCl + Fe(OH)3
Na2SO4 + Zn(OH)2

Metallic

Blue ppt.
Red brown ppt.
Gelatinous White ppt.

Uses
1. Manufacture of Soaps
2. Manufacture of Bleaching Powder

- Ca(OH)2

3. As an Antacid [to neutralize acidity]

- Mg(OH)2

4. As a foaming agent in fire extinguishers

- Al(OH)3

5. In Softening Water

- Ca(OH)2

6. In Removing Grease Stains from Clothes

Contents

- NaOH

Bases

- NH4OH

Salts

Definitions
Classification
Solubility of Salts
General Methods of Preparation
Hydrolysis

Epsom Salt

Contents

Next

Definitions
Salts:
A chemical compound formed by complete or partial displacement of the
replaceable H+ ions of an acid by a metal or a group of elements acting as a
metal is known as a salt.

Normal Salt:
It is a chemical compound formed by the complete neutralization between an
acid and a base.

Acid Salt:
It is a chemical compound formed by the partial or incomplete neutralization
of an acid by a base.

Basic Salt:
It is a chemical compound formed by the partial or incomplete neutralization
of a base by an acid.

Contents

Salts

Next

Definitions
Double Salt:
It is a chemical compound formed by the mixing of two normal salts in
molecular proportion followed by crystallization from their hot saturated
solution.

Complex Salt:
It is a chemical compound formed by the mixing of two salts in molecular
proportion followed by crystallization from their hot saturated solution such
that when the salt is dissolved in water a simple and a complex ion is
formed.

Water of Crystallization:
It is the definite number of water molecules that are in a loose chemical
association with one molecule of a certain salt, responsible for its crystalline
structure, and formed by the crystallization of their hot saturated solution.

Contents

Salts

Previous

Definitions
Deliquescent
substance

Efflorescence:

Efflorescence

It is a phenomenon due to which certain hydrated crystalline salt when


exposed to open atmosphere lose their water of crystallization completely or
partially thereby converting to a solid amorphous powdered residue.

Deliquescence:
It is a phenomenon due to which certain crystalline salt when exposed to
open atmosphere absorb moisture from it thereby going into a liquid state.

Hydrolysis:
It is a type of reaction whereby a salt when dissolved in water will partially
dissociate to form the parent acid and the parent base.

Contents

Salts

Previous

Classification

Contents

Acid Salt: NaHSO4, NaH2PO4, etc.

Normal Salt: Na2SO4, Cu(OH)2, etc.

Mixed Salt: NaKCO3, Bleaching Powder (Ca(OCl)Cl)

Complex Salt: Nesselers Reagent (K2[HgI4]), Na2ZnO2

Basic Salt: Cu[OH]NO3 (Basic copper nitrate), Cu[OH]Cl (Basic copper chloride)
Double Salt: Alum (K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O), Mohr Salt (FeSO4.(NH4)2SO4.6H2O)

Salts

* - PbCl2 soluble in hot water

Solubility Chart
Soluble
All Na+, +K+, +NH4+ Salts
All Na , K , NH4+ Salts
All NO3-, -NO2- Salts
All NO3 , NO2- Salts
All HCO3- Salts
All HCO3- Salts
All SO42- 2-Salts
All SO4 Salts
All Cl- Salts
All Cl- Salts
Contents

Salts

Insoluble
-

KHCO3, NaHCO3
KHCO3, NaHCO3
PbSO4 , AgSO4 , CaSO4 , BaSO4
PbSO4 , AgSO4 , CaSO4 , BaSO4
PbCl2 *, AgCl, HgCl
PbCl2 *, AgCl, HgCl
All SO3- Salts
All SO3- Salts
All S2- 2-Salts
All S Salts
All CO3- Salts
All CO3- Salts
All O2- Salts
All O2- Salts
All OH- Salts
All OH- Salts
All PO43- 3-Salts
All PO4 Salts

General Methods of Preparation


1. Preparation of Soluble Salts
2. Preparation of Insoluble Salts

Contents

Salts

Preparation of Soluble Salts


1. Neutralization
2. Neutralization using Titration
3. Displacement
4. Direct Combination
5. Decomposition of Carbonates/Bicarbonates
6. Decomposition of Chlorides
7. Decomposition of Nitrates

Contents

General Methods of Preparation

Neutralization
Reaction: Acid + Base
Insoluble Oxide + Acid

CuO + H2SO4
PbO + 2HNO3
CaO + 2HCl

Salt + Water

CuSO4 + H2O
Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
CaCl2 + H2O

Insoluble Hydroxide + Acid

Cu(OH)2 + 2HCl
Pb(OH)2 + 2HCl

CuCl2 + 2H2O
PbCl2 + 2H2O

Insoluble Carbonate/Bicarbonate + Acid

Contents

CuCO3 + H2SO4
NaHCO3 + HCl
PbCO3 + 2HNO3
ZnCO3 + 2HNO3

CuSO4 + CO2 + H2O


NaCl + CO2 + H2O
Pb(NO3)2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O
Zn(NO3)2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Neutralization using Titration


Reaction: Acid + Alkali Salt + Water
Soluble Hydroxide + Acid

NaOH + HCl
KOH + HCl
2NH4OH + H2SO4

Na 2SO4 + H2O
KCl + H2O
(NH4)2SO4 + H2O

Soluble Carbonate/Bicarbonate + Acid

Contents

Na2CO3 + H2SO4
Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HNO3
(NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl

Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O


Ca(NO3)2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O
NH4Cl + 2CO2 + 2H2O

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Displacement
Reaction: Metal + Acid

Zn + H2SO4
Zn + 2HCl
Fe + H2SO4
Fe + 2HCl
Mg + H2SO4
Mg + 2HCl
Zn + CuSO4
Fe + CuSO4

Salt + Hydrogen Gas

ZnSO4 + H2
ZnCl2 + H2
FeSO4 + H2
FeCl2 + H2
MgSO4 + H2
MgCl2 + H2
ZnSO4 + Cu
FeSO4 + Cu

[Pb + H2SO4
PbSO4 + H2
Above reaction is possible, but since PbSO 4 is an insoluble salt, it will form a
coating and the reaction will thereby stop.]

Contents

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Direct Combination
Reaction: A + B

Contents

2Fe + 3Cl2
2Al + 3Cl2

AB
2FeCl3
2AlCl3

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Decomposition of Carbonates/Bicarbonate
Reaction: Carbonate + Acid [dil.]
Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Soluble Carbonate/Bicarbonate + Acid [dil.]

Na2CO3 + H2SO4
Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HNO3
(NH4)2CO3 + 2HCl

Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O


Ca(NO3)2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O
NH4Cl + 2CO2 + 2H2O

Insoluble Carbonate/Bicarbonate + Acid [dil.]

Contents

CuCO3 + H2SO4
NaHCO3 + HCl
PbCO3 + 2HNO3
ZnCO3 + 2HNO3

CuSO4 + CO2 + H2O


NaCl + CO2 + H2O
Pb(NO3)2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O
Zn(NO3)2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Decomposition of Chlorides
Reaction: Chloride Salt + Acid [1] [conc.] Salt + Hydrogen chloride [2]
NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] <200C NaHSO4 + HCl
NaCl + H2SO4[conc.] >200C Na2SO4 + HCl
KCl + H2SO4[conc.] <200C KHSO4 + HCl
KCl + H2SO4[conc.] >200C K2SO4 + HCl

Contents

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Decomposition of Nitrates
Reaction: Nitrate Salt + Acid [1] [conc.] Salt + Nitric Acid [2]
NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] <200C NaHSO4 + HNO3
NaNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] >200C Na2SO4 + HNO3
KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] <200C KHSO4 + HNO3
KNO3 + H2SO4[conc.] >200C K2SO4 + HNO3

Contents

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Preparation of Insoluble Salts


1. Direct Combination
2. Double Decomposition (precipitation)

Contents

General Methods of Preparation

Direct Combination
Reaction: A + B

Contents

Fe + S
Zn + S
Pb + S
Cu + S

AB
FeS
ZnS
PbS
CuS

Preparation of Insoluble Salts

Double Decomposition (precipitation)


Reaction:
Soluble Salt Solution + Acid [1]

AgNO3 + HCl
BaCl2 + H2SO4
Ca(NO3)2 + H2SO4
Pb(NO3)2 + H2S

Insoluble Salt

AgCl
+ HNO3
BaSO4
+ 2HCl
CaSO4
+ 2HNO3
PbS
+ 3HNO3

Soluble Salt Solution [1] + Soluble Salt Solution [2]


Precipitated Insoluble Salt

Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl
CaCl2 + 2Na2CO3
ZnSO4 + (NH4)2CO3
Pb(NO3)2 + Na2SO4

2NaNO3 + PbCl2
2NaCl + CaCO3
(NH4)2SO4 + ZnCO3
2NaNO3 + PbSO4

Convert Insoluble Salt to Insoluble Salt

Contents

+ Acid [2]

Preparation of Insoluble Salts

Soluble Salt +

Insoluble Salt to Insoluble Salt


Reaction:
1. Insoluble Salt Solution + Acid

Soluble Salt [1]

2. Soluble Salt Solution [1] + Soluble Salt Solution [2]


Insoluble Salt
Ex:
. PbO

Contents

PbCl2

PbO + HNO3
Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCl

. PbCO3

Precipitated

Pb(NO3)2 + H2O
2NaNO3 + PbCl2

PbSO4

2HNO3 + 2PbCO3
Pb(NO3)2 + 2Na2SO4

Pb(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2


2NaNO3 + PbSO4

Double Decomposition (precipitation)

Hydrolysis
pH of Solution

NH4Cl + H2O
NaHCO3 + H2O
Na2CO3 + H2O
NaCl + H2O
MgCl2 + 2H2O
NH4CO3 + H2O

Contents

Salts

NH4OH + HCl
NaOH + H2CO3
2NaOH + H2CO3
NaOH + HCl
Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl
H2CO3 + NH4OH

Acidic
Acidic
Alkaline
Alkaline
Alkaline
Alkaline
Neutral
Neutral
Acidic
Acidic
Neutral
Neutral

Reason
Strong Acid + Weak Base
Strong Acid + Weak Base
Strong Base +Weak Acid
Strong Base +Weak Acid
Strong Base + Weak Acid
Strong Base + Weak Acid
Strong Base + Strong Acid
Strong Base + Strong Acid
Strong Acid + Weak Base
Strong Acid + Weak Base
Weak Base + Weak Acid
Weak Base + Weak Acid

Indicators

Contents

Definitions
pH Value of a Medium
Determination of pH by Indicators
Types of Indicators
Difference Between Common Acid-Base Indicators and Universal Indicators
Colour Changes by Indicators
Utility of Indicators and pH Values
pH Values of Some Common Substances

Definitions
Indicators:
Indicators are weak organic compounds [ acids or bases ] which change
colour in accordance with the pH of the solution.

pH of a Solution:
pH of a solution is the negative logarithm [to the base 10] of hydrogen ion
concentration in the solution, expressed in moles/litre.
pH = log [ H+ ] ( [ H+ ] is the molar concentration)

pH Scale:
It is a scale showing the relative strength of acids and alkalis.

Contents

Indicators

pH Value of a Medium
Pure water is neutral and ionizes very slightly to yield equal number of
hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions.
The concentration of [H+] ions and [OH-] ions are both equal to 10-7
mol.dm-3 [at 25 C].
Thus the product of the two ionic concentrations is
kW = ionic product of water = [H+][OH-] = 10-7x10-7 = 10-14 [at 25 C]
When an acid is added to the aqueous medium the [H+] ion
concentration increases above 10-7 and at the same time the [OH-] ion
concentration decreases to below 10-7.

Contents

Indicators

pH 7

Neutral

[H++ aq. ] = [OH--]

pH less than 7

Acidic

[H++ aq. ] > [OH--]

pH more than 7

Basic

[H++] < [OH-- aq. ]

Determination of pH by Indicators

Universal
Indicator

Acidity increases

pH Scale
Indicators

11 12 13 14

Alkalinity increases
Neutral

Contents

10

Types of Indicators
There are two types of indicators:
Common Acid-Base Indicators
Universal Indicators

Contents

Indicators

Difference Between Common Acid-Base Indicators and Universal Indicators

Contents

Common Acid-Base Indicators

Universal Indicators

Indicates whether a solution is


acidic or alkaline

Indicates the strength or pH


range of the solution

Cannot be utilized for


determining strength of
solution

Can be utilized for determining


strength of solution

Cannot differentiate between


different acidic or basic
solutions

Can differentiate between


different acidic or basic
solutions

Examples: Litmus, methyl


orange, phenolphthalein

Examples: pH paper,
indicators

Indicators

Colour Changes by Indicators

Contents

Acid-Base Indicators

Acidic Solution

Basic Solution

Litmus
Litmus (Alkaline)
Methyl Orange
Methyl Orange
(alkaline)
Phenolphthalein
Phenolphthalein
(alkaline)

Red
Red
Pink

Blue
Blue
Yellow

Pink

Yellow

Colourless

Colourless

Colourless

Colourless

Indicators

Utility of Indicators and pH Values


Agriculture: The pH of soil is tested- for better growth of crops [citrus
fruits need slightly alkaline soil, rice needs slightly acidic soil, and
sugarcane needs neutral soil].
Dairies: A change in pH of milk [from 6.6] indicates that the milk has
turned sour.

Contents

Indicators

pH Values of Some Common Substances


Dil. Hydrochloric Acid 1.0
Lactic Acid
6.6
Human Blood
7.42
Sea Water
8.5
Sodium Hydroxide
13.0

Contents

Indicators