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Evolution of Computers

• The development of the modern day computer was the result


of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify.
• ABACUS
• The abacus was invented in 3000 BC in Babylonia.
• to count and calculate
• still widely used in Asia!
• PASCAL’S ADDING MACHINE
• In 1642 AD, Blaise Pascal , a French mathematician invented a
calculating machine named as Adding Machine .
• This machine was capable of doing Addition and Subtraction.
This device is known as the First Calculator of the world .
• LEIBNITZ’S CALCULATOR
• In 1671 AD, Gotfried Leibnitz, a German Mathematician improved the Adding
machine and made a new machine capable of performing multiplication and
division also.
• · first stored program - metal cards first computer manufacturing still in use today!
Jacquard Loom - 1801
• · BABBAGE’S DIFFERENCE ENGINE
• Charles Babbage was a British mathematician. In 1822, he designed a machine
called Difference Engine . It aimed at calculating mathematical tables.
• Since the technology was not so advanced at that time this machine could not be
made.
• · BABBAGE’S ANALYTICAL ENGINE
• In 1833, Charles Babbage designed a machine called Analytical Engine . It had
almost all the parts of a modern computer. Unfortunately, this machine could not
be built because of lack of technology. His designs remained a concept.
• His great designs earned him the title of ‘ FATHER OF COMPUTERS‘.
• LADY ADA
• Lord Byron's daughter, Ada, Countess of Lovelace , suggested to Babbage that he
use the binary system in his machine.
• She wrote programs for his analytical engine in 1840, becoming the world's first
computer programmer.
• · HOLLERITH’S TABULATING MACHINE
• Hollerith, a Mathematician, invented a fast counting machine named Tabulating
Machine in 1880.
• This machine was used by American Department of Census to complete their 1880
census data.
• · MARK I COMPUTER
• Howard Aiken of Harvard University in USA joined hands with the company IBM.
• He developed a computer named Mark I in 1943.
• It could perform mathematical operations very fast.
• It could perform one operation per second.
• ENIAC
• The first electronic computer ENIAC was developed in
1946 by a team lead by Professor Eckert and Mauchly
at the University of Pennsylvania in USA.
• Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)
was very huge and very fast.
• It could solve 5000 operations per second.
• · INTEL 8080 PROCESSOR
• In 1974 the Intel 8080 processor was introduced - it
became the basis for the first personal computers
First Generation
• TIME PERIOD : 1940's-1950's
• TECHNOLOGY USED : Vacuum Tubes
• SIZE AND SPEED : Huge, taking up entire
• rooms, Slow speed
• LANGUAGE USED : Machine language
• COST : System and
• working cost very high.
• OTHER FEATURES :
– Used a great deal of electricity.
– Generated a lot of heat.
– Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed
on printouts.
• EXAMPLE : UNIVAC and ENIAC
Second Generation
• TIME PERIOD : 1950's- 1960's
• TECHNOLOGY USED : Transistors
• SIZE AND SPEED : Lesser size and increased speed LANGUAGE
USED : Assembly language and languages like COBOL and
FORTRAN
• COST : Cost decreased
• OTHER FEATURES : More efficient and reliable. EXAMPLE :
UNIVAC 1108, IBM 1401, CDC 1604 UNIVAC 1108 IBM 1401
TRANSISITORS
Third Generation
• TIME PERIOD : late 1960's-1970's
• TECHNOLOGY USED : Integrated Circuit
• SIZE AND SPEED : Size Lesser and speed further increased
LANGUAGE USED : Operating System was developed.
• COST : Cost decreased further
• OTHER FEATURES : Instead of punched cards and printouts,
users interacted with third generation computers through
keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating
system
• EXAMPLE : IBM-360 series, Honeywell Model 316, Honeywell
– 6000 series, CDC – 1700. IBM 360/50
Fourth Generation
• TIME PERIOD : 1970's-today
• TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor
• SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed
• LANGUAGE USED : High Level Languages like PASCAL, COBOL, C, C++, JAVA
COST : Reduced Cost
• OTHER FEATURES : Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of
desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more
everyday products began to use microprocessors.
• As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked
together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of
the Internet.
• Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the
mouse and handheld devices. EXAMPLE : Intel 4004, Apple Macintosh
• The Macintosh 128K , the first Macintosh, was the first commercially
successful personal computer to use images, rather than text, to
communicate. Intel 4004D microprocessor
Fifth Generation
• TIME PERIOD : 1990's -today
• TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor
• SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed
• LANGUAGE USED : Based on Artificial intelligence
• COST : Reduced Cost
• OTHER FEATURES : Fifth generation computing devices, based
on artificial intelligence,
• EXAMPLE : Parallel Inference Machine