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Fundamentals of

Understanding Fashion,
Merchandise Management of Retail, Export
& Buying House.



Accepted by a substantial group of people
at a given time , in a given place.

Understanding Fashion Movement   Fashion movement is the ongoing change in what is considered fashionable from acceptance to obsolescence (the rejection of a fashion in favor of a new one) A fashion trend is the direction fashion is moving OBSOLETE .

and obsolescence in popularity of specific styles or shapes. • Fashion acceptance can be illustrated using a bell-shaped curve. . peak. decline. rise. • All styles that come into fashion rotate through the fashion cycle.The fashion cycle • Fashion cycle: The ongoing introduction.

From Flop to Classic .Overall Fashion Cycle Variations . . .

The Fashion Cycle Peak Height of popularity. Worn by the majority of people (culmination) Decline Rise Slowly increases in popularity Introduction New style is introduced (colors and textures) Decreases in popularity (saturation) Obsolescence Discarded for a newer style ALSO KNOWN AS THE MERCHANDISE ACCEPTANCE CURVE .

• Flops: Fashions that are introduced and expected to sell but that are not accepted by consumers.The fashion cycle (cont.) • The cycles for some styles are exceptions to the bell-shaped curve. passing fashions that have great appeal to many people for a short period of time. styles that gain and lose popularity quickly. • Classics: Styles that continue to be popular over an extended period of time . • Fads: Temporary.

Kurtis .

Skirts .

Fashion Classics .

Fashion Fads .


Cycle within Cycles .

Recurring Cyclic Fashions PLAT FORMS SHOES HOTPANTS .

and fabrics are introduced.  The new style may be accepted by a small number of people called fashion leaders.  Retail buyers purchase limited numbers to see if the style will be accepted. .) Introduction: The first stage of the fashion cycle when new styles. colors.Stages of the fashion cycle (cont. textures.  Fashions are produced in small quantities at high prices.  Promotional activities include fashion shows and advertising in high fashion magazines.

.  Mass production brings down the price of the fashion.  Promotional efforts are increased in high fashion magazines to heighten consumer awareness.Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.  Retail buyers order items in quantity.  Styles are manufactured in less expensive materials and in lower quality construction than the original style. which results in more sales.) Rise: The second stage of the fashion cycle when consumer interest grows and the fashion becomes more readily accepted by consumers.

) Peak (Culmination stage): The third stage of the fashion cycle during which a style is at its height of popularity.  The fashion is demanded by almost everyone because it is now within the price range of most consumers and is mass produced in many variations.Stages of the fashion cycle (cont. .  Each retailer tries to persuade customers that its version of the style is the best.

Styles typically have more details than seen in classics. usually lasting only one season Accepted and rejected quickly Teenagers’ fashions change the fastest and have the most trends.) Peak (Culmination stage)  The style may have a long or short stay at this stage. Styles are easy for the manufacturer to produce and are relatively inexpensive to the consumer.      Fads.  Short-run fashions: Styles that are popular for a brief period of time.Stages of the fashion cycle (cont. .

Classics. slow decline  Styles have simple lines.  .Stages of the fashion cycle (cont. long peak.) Peak (Culmination stage)  Long-run fashions: Styles that take a long time to complete the fashion cycle. and/or staple fashions  Slow introduction. basics. minimal detail.

.) Decline: The fourth stage of the fashion cycle when the market is saturated and popularity decreases.  Promotions center around major clearance or closeout sales of the fashion. retailers mark down their prices.  The fashion is overused and becomes dull and boring.Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.  As the fashion decreases in popularity.

is no longer worn.) Obsolescence: The fifth stage of the fashion cycle when the style is rejected. and is no longer produced.Stages of the fashion cycle (cont. is undesirable at any price. .

Fashion cycles are less distinct now than in the past. Recurring fashions: Styles which have been in fashion at one time. gone out of fashion. and come back in fashion again. .   Fashion trends seem to recur about every generation or every 20 to 30 years.Lengths of fashion cycles   Cycles have no specific lengths.

Theories of Fashion Movement Higher $ Royalty Rich White collar Lower $ TRICKLE DOWN TRICKLE UP Fashion trends start at the top of the “social ladder” Fashion trends start with the young or lower income groups Blue collar TRICKLE ACROSS Fashion moves horizontally through similar social levels .

Trickle-Down Theory 18th-19th Century  Source of fashion ideas   how quickly the lower class could obtain and copy the elite  designers catered to wealthy  Fashion leaders  highly visible elite served as models for lower class  Direction  down from elite class to working class Change of speed  Dynamics of change  drive for differentiation and imitation .

Mass Market Trickle-Across Essentials  Mass production  Newest looks available quickly  Fast-paced communication and mass media  Style information available to all at same time  Each social group has own fashion leaders .

body piercing. “grunge” looks .Trickle-Up Theory     Starts with young trendsetters May be lower income groups Fashion defined by street wear Examples may include:  Tattooing.

easy knockoffs Mass production makes fashion available at all price levels .1960’s Trickle-Across          Within group at similar social level Vietnam Civil rights Integration Mass communication Mass media Growing middle class Availability of quick.

Merchandise .

grocery stores or gas stations. or magazines. . inexpensive items that customers purchase frequently.Types of Merchandise  Staple Goods – items that are constantly in demand by customers. Examples are gum. milk. Convenience Goods – small. Examples are toothpaste. or bread.  Found in convenience stores. bottled water.    Used consistently and replaced on a regular basis Sales are easily predictable because they are bought on a consistent basis.

Examples are swimsuits.    Includes any item that comes in or out of style Retailer will maximize sales by acquiring the product as it is gaining popularity Seasonal Goods – products that are popular only at a certain time of year. or snow skis. . Fashion Goods – items that are popular at a certain time. boxed chocolates. An example is clothing.

 Components of the Mix Merchandise Mix – made up of all the products that a business sells  Product Line – a group of closely related products that a business sells  Product Items – the products that make up a product line.The Merchandise Mix  Businesses must pay close attention to their target market and must obtain. maintain. and continually improve upon their merchandise mix. develop. A specific model or brand  .

Types of Merchandise  Merchandise Mix Strategies     Development – develop new products to bolster the company’s image or to expand their market share. Deletion – may occur when a product is no longer useful. or room is needed for another product. obsolete. not fashionable. . Modification – altering a company’s existing product. Expansion – businesses can choose to add either new product items or new product lines.