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ME - (CIM)




• The reliability of the device used can be controlled
to a large extent in the manufacturing phases ,
mainly by quality control methods.
• The circuit designer generally has little control over
the design reliability of the device.
• Since the designer concentrated on the advent of
(LSI) and (VLSI) for their progress, the factors
influencing the reliability was not given
• Without team approach , the designer correct
design could be unreliable.
• Electronic system unreliability is due to defective



• Defects in devices are caused by mechanical
loading and thermal stresses exceeding the
critical value of the devices.
• Electronics system failures can be caused by
mechanism other than load exceeding the
For ex :
Parameter drift in component
Short circuit due to solder
Tolerance mismatches




test and monitor reliability in manufacturing and field so as to assure we have capable system architecture.DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY • Design for Reliability (DFR) is an integrated process of reliability. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 4 . design and operations departments by applying techniques to review and improve product design. • Reliability is the ability of a product to function under given conditions and for a specified period of time without exceeding acceptable failure levels. reliable components and adequate fault avoidance and fault tolerance schemes.

Specify reliability goals Allocate Goals Implements design methods Failure analysis (FMEA/FMECA) Are goals achieved? No Yes System Safety Analysis (FTA) Are goals achieved? Yes 04/27/15 Ready for production No Reliability design is an iterative process that begins with the specification of reliability goals consistent with cost and performance objectives.   It considers life-cycle costs of the system and system effectiveness DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 5 .

Reliability activities and product life cycle Conceptual preliminary design Detailed design and development and prototyping Production and Manufacturing Product Use and Support Specification Design methods Acceptance testing Preventive and predictive maintenance Allocation Failure analysis Quality control Modification Design methods Growth testing Burn-in and screen testing Parts replacements Safety analysis 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 6 .

• Be aware of the reliability level of your competitor product. 1. • Whether you are an equipment manufacturer or a user. • Know what reliability level is required in the market place 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 7 .GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS • The first step to better reliability is to know the reliability goals and requirements. Equipment manufacturer (supplier) • Understand the exact reliability requirements of your customer.

The age at 4 month after which equipment should installation attain the reliability level 04/27/15 Operational conditions Temperature Range 70 – 75 deg F Humidity Range Range 40 – 45 % DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 8 .Customer • Customer responsibility is to make sure that equipment suppliers know your exact requirements. set the reliability goals for each equipment at the beginning 2. ITEMS EXAMPLE Time Factor .Considering the above inputs.

04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 9 .GOAL ALLOCATION • Once the goal were known to the manufacturer . • The process of breaking down the system level goal into sub – level is called budgeting or allocation. • The manufacturer should break the equipment and system level goals into bite – size goals for subsystem. modules and components • It is relatively easy to achieve their respective product goals.

DESIGN OF METHODS A product fails prematurely because of the inadequate design features. • Various activities and parameter that are involved in design of products: 1. abnormal stresses introduced due to packaging or distribution. or external conditions that exceed the design parameters. operator and maintenance error. manufacturing part defects.Material selection. It involve consideration of following parameters • Tensile strength • Hardness   04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 10 .

Stress-strength analysis.Derating. The traditional approach is to design safety margins. It is use of a component under stress significantly below its rated value 3. or safety factors in to the equipment/ component.• Fatigue life • Creep 2. Failure is likely to occur if safety factor is less than 1 or safety margin is negative – Safety factor: The safety factor is the ratio of the capacity of the system to the load placed on the system – Safety margin: The safety margin is the difference between the system capacity and load 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 11 .

Using more than one part to accomplishing a given function. Redundancy allow a system to operate even though some parts have failed . 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 12 . Reduce the number of parts through the combining functions 5. eliminate it from the design . so that all parts must fail before causing a system failure. thus increasing the reliability. Design Simplification. as a part is not required. Redundancy. Anything can be done to reduce the complexity of the design.4.

  • Modeling technique determine the analytical value of the reliability level.   04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 13 . and criticality analysis (FMECA) is formalized design process with an objective to improve the inherent reliability. • The Failure Mode and Effect analysis technique determine the system level effect of parts failures.DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY TOOLS • Failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) or failure mode effect.

Identification of failure modes Failure modes will be identified by hardware or function approach. circuit short. A functional and physical description of the system provides the definition and boundaries for performing analysis. power loss.   2. For example: valve open. pipe or valve rupture. etc. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 14 . Failures modes are observable manners in which a component fails. System definition: This step is to identify those system components that will be subject to failure.FMEA comprises of following steps:   1.

Determination of causes There are certain specific causes for each and every failure mode to occur . A failure mode may have more than one cause. Example includes Failure mode Category Cause Failure Mechanism Capacitor short Electrical High voltage Derating Failure of metal Chemical Humid and salty atmosphere Corrosion Connector fracture Mechanical Excessive vibration Fatigue 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 15 .3.

Effect assessment The impact of each failure on the operation or status of the system is assessed.4. Effects may range from complete system failure to partial degradation to no impact on performance Failure mechanism Failure mode Failure effect Corrosion Failure of tank wall Leaking battery Tank rupture Frication and excessive wear Drive belt break Shutdown of production line Prolonged low temperature Brittle seals Leakage in hydraulic system Manufacturing defect in casing 04/27/15 Failure to flashlight to light DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 16 .

or major damage. Significant system failure occurs that can result in injury. System is degraded with partial loss in performance. • Category III: Marginal.5. performance unacceptable. loss of life. • Category II: Critical. • Category IV: Negligible.Classification of severity   A severity classification is assigned to each failure mode to be used for prioritization of corrective actions. Minor failure occurs with no effect on acceptable system performance 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 17 . • Category I: Catastrophic. Generally severity is classified in four classes. Complete loss of system occurs.

Some of the standard handbook on FMEA classifies qualitatively frequency of occurrence in five major levels 7. and reducing the severity of failure. decreasing the probability of occurrence.   Design activities should be oriented toward removing the cause of failure. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 18 .6. Estimation of probability of occurrence   Probability of occurrence of each failure mode is estimated generally using handbook or existing databases. Those failure modes having high criticality index and severity classification should receive the most attention. Determination of corrective action   This is very dependent on the problem.

RELIABILITY OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS • Increasing the level of integration and reducing the volume requirement . • But there is a difficult task of controlling the junction temperature in densely packed systems. • The quality control of IC manufacture has improved recently due to competition and this has contributed to the development of reliability. the power consumption also decreased. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 19 . • It also leads to the reduction in cost per function and improvement in reliability.


Ex ( ceramics or metal ) • PEIC are cheaper than hermetic IC and therefore tend to be used in domestic purpose. • But it is not suitable for high temperature operation ( above 85 degc ) 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 21 . usually by soldering.MICROELECTRONIC PACKAGING • There are two method of packaging IC chips hermetic packaging and Plastic encapsulated IC. • Wire bond are connected between the die connector pads and the leadout conductors and the package is then sealed with a lid. commercial and industrial equipment. • In hermetic packaging the die is attached to the package base.

• This would seriously affect the reliability of the component. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 22 . the power dissipation per unit volume increases will lead to difficult thermal management problems.• This type of packaging cannot be used in the military equipment. • They also suffer a life dependent(wearout) failure mode due to moisture ingress by the absorption through encapsulation material. • since the overall volume get decreased.


MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENT ATTACHMENT • Microelectronic component in dual-in-line packages can either be soldered on the PCB or plugged into IC sockets which are soldered in place. • Plugging IC into sockets provides three major advantages from the test and maintenance point of view. 2. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 24 . It is much easier to change components which are subject to modifications such as programmable memories. Failed components can easily be replaced. Testing and diagnosis is usually made much easier and more effective if complex devices such as microprocessors are not in place. 1. 3. with less danger of damaging the PCB or other components.

2. Heat transfer is degraded. shock or contamination environments. so it might mot be possible to derate junction temperature adequately. 3. There might be electrical problems in high vibration. • This type cannot be used for high reliability structures such as spacecraft and mobile military equipment. • IC sockets are used on many repairable systems.• some draw back 1. such that the cost must be kept low. There is a risk of damage to the IC and the socket due to handling. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 25 . for especially mass produced systems.


there are no inherent wear out failure mode. • There are no failure mechanism which depend upon operating or non operating time. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 27 . voltage ). • The only way through which it can fail is overloaded beyond its design ratings consider such as ( Temperature. which causes immediate or progressive weakening. • Therefore the reliability is very dependent upon quality control of the manufacturing processes and effectiveness of the screening techniques used to remove defective devices.MICROELECTRONICS DEVICE FAILURE MODE • For hermetically sealed semiconductor devices. within a manufactured device. • There is a defect already .

Worn electrical contact 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 28 . Broken wire in inductor imaged using micro focus x-rays Contamination.Thermal/mechanical stress: can cause many types of failure including internal breaks. migration and wear: contamination can be introduced during manufacture or during use. migration can occur under electrical.

( They are having an approach called capability approval ) 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 29 . • Similarly other type of standard specifications are IEC – International Electro technical commission BS 9400 – British standard institution • Components produced to this specifications are referred to as approved component. • Latest devices type available on the market do not have such specifications. the US military specification was developed such as (M – 38510 ) • This describes general control and separate sections (slash sheets) give detailed specification of particular devices type.MICROELECTRONIC DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS • To control the quality and reliability of microelectronic devices for military purposes.

• The design life and the acceptable failure probability for the electronic assembly determine the reliability of the surface mount solder attachment.SOLDER JOINTS • The reliability of electronic assemblies depends on the reliability of their individual elements and the reliability of the mechanical thermal. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 30 . substrate. and solder joint together with the usage conditions. and electrical interfaces (or attachments) between these elements. • The characteristics of these three elements— component.

• This grain growth process is enhanced by elevated temperatures as well as strain energy input during cyclic loading. as the grains grow these contaminants are further concentrated at the grain boundaries.GRAIN STRUCTURE • The grain structure of solder is inherently unstable. • The grains will grow in size over time as the grain structure reduces the internal energy of a finegrained structure. • At the grain boundaries contaminants like lead oxides are concentrated. • The grain growth process is thus an indication of the accumulating fatigue damage. weakening these boundaries. 04/27/15 DESIGN FOR RELIABILITY 31 .