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corelation and anayysis

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coefficient

r= dx dy / dx 2 x dy

dy = Y- mean or dy = Y-B , where B is any other constant.

Test 1 : (X)

Test 2 : (Y)

10

10

dx : -1

dy : -1

dx 2 = 20

Hence r =

1

2

3

2

-3

-1

-2

dy 2 = 14

dx dy = 15

dx dy / dx 2 x dy

= 15/ 20 x 14

= 0.84

coefficient

r=( n XY - X . Y)/ [n X 2 - (X) 2] . [n Y 2 - (Y) 2]

Ex. Find r and interpret the value of it.

X

:9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Y: 15

16

14

13

11

12

10

8

9

Solution:- Here Sum of x =45 Sum of Y = 108 n=9

Sum of X 2 = 285

Sum of Y

2 =

1356

Result:- There is high correlation between X and Y.

by U-V method.

Here U= X-A, V= Y-B where A and b are any

values near to x and Y respectively.

Treat U as new X and V new Y. find correlation

between u-v.

Use the property that correlation is

independent of change of origin and scale.

Hence correlation between U-V is same as

correlation between X-Y.

Spearmans Rank

Correlation Coefficient

To find the relationship between the judgements by

two judges, honesty and efficiency this is used.

Here R = 1 6 d2 / n(n2-1)

Where d= the difference between the ranks and n

are the no. of pairs of values.

Three cases are

1. ranks of X and Y are known

2 X and y values are given ,we have to assign the

ranks.

3. X and Y values are given , but repetition of

values is observed.

Spearmans Rank

Correlation Coefficient

committees as follows

I

F A G B D C J E I H

II

A B G D C E F H J I

What is the rank correlation coefficient ?

Solution: Here

Food products: A B C D E F G H I J

Rank (x)

2 4 6 5 8 1 3 10 9 7

Rank (Y)

1 2 5 4 6 7 3 8 10 9

D

1 2 1 1 2 -6 0 2 -1 -2

D2

1 4 1 1 4 36 0 4 1 4

D2 = 56 , n = 10 R = 1 6 D2 / n(n2 -1)

=

1 (6x56)/ 10x99

= -0.7

Spearmans Rank

Correlation Coefficient

Ex.2 Calculate R

X: 12

17 22 27

32

Y: 113 119 117 115 121

Solution: Here ranks are as below

R1: 5

4

3 2

1

R2: 5

2

3 4

1

D: 0

2

0 -2 0

D2: 0

4

0

4

0

D 2 = 8 Hence R = 1- 6 D 2/ n(n2 -1)

= 1- (6x 8 )/5x24

= 0.6

Spearmans Rank

Correlation Coefficient

Find R

X:

18 16 15 19 20

Y:

71 60 60 73 70

Here ranks will be

R1:

3.5 6 7

2

1

R2:

2

9 9 1

3

d:

1.5 -3 -2 1

-2

D 2 = 53.5

C.F. = correction factor

= m(m2 -1)/12 = 2.5 = 2+0.5 where m is the no of times x or y repeats

Hence R = 1- 6 [d2 +correction factor] / n(n2 -1)

= 1 6 x (53.5+ 2.5)/10x99

= 1-0.34 = 0.66

10 5 3.5 9

5

7 4

9

5 -2 -0.5 0

D2 :

8

6

2

2.25 9 4

14 11 17 18 12

65 66 64 69 60

25

4 0.25 0

Regression analysis

relationship between x and y

Ex.1 Tall brothers have tall sisters but there exists no

cause and effect relationship between the two but both

are the children of tall parents.

2. sometimes production will decrease by increasing price

or sometimes production will increase by increasing

price .

3. correlation may be due to chance .There may exist

positive relation between heights of father and marks of

their sons due to chance

4.The existent relation may be sometimes opposite. The

correlation between time spent in studies and result of

the examination may be positive but in reality intelligency

is the third factor related to both of these factors.

Regression analysis

Reg line of y on x

Reg line of x on y

(y- y)= byx (x- x) (x- x)=bxy (y- y)

Where byx=(ry) / x

x= mean of x

y= mean of y

bxy = (r x) / y

byx= dx dy / dx

bxy= dx dy / dy

2 Where dx = X-mean of x,

2

dy=

Y-mean of y

Regression analysis

old car of the same make.

Age (yrs)

2 4 6 7 8 10 12

Annual cost

(in hundreds Rs.) 16 15 18 19 17 21 20

Ex.2 Given

x series

y series

mean

18

100

s.d.

14

20

r

0.8

Estimate 1) y if x=70 2) x if y= 90

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