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Aircraft Construction

Lecture 1
General Information on A/C
Construction
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Contents
1.

Main structural groups of A/C.

2.

Basic requirements to be met by A/C


structures.

3.

Classification of A/C depending on


structural features.
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Main structural groups of A/C (1)


1.

Airframe group:
a.
b.
c.

2.

Wing.
Fuselage.
Tail unit.

Airframe mechanisms & systems:


a.
b.

Landing gear.
Control system mechanisms
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Main structural groups of A/C (2)


c.
d.
e.

Mechanisms power actuators.


De-icing devices.
Power plant:

3.

Engine, fuel system, oil system, firefighting


system, etc.

Aircraft equipment group:


a.
b.

Electronic automatics.
Electrical equipment.
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Main structural groups of A/C (3)


c.
d.
e.

4.

Instrument & oxygen equipment.


High-altitude outfit.
Camera reconnaissance and camera
gunnery facilities.

Radar equipment group:


a.
b.

Communication.
Navigation & reconnaissance means.
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Main structural groups of A/C (4)


c.
d.
e.

5.

Counter-radar means.
IFF.
Control meansetc

A/C armament group:


a.
b.
c.

Rocket.
Guns.
Bombs aboard the A/C
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Main structural groups of A/C (5)


d.
e.
f.

Armament mounts.
Sighting devices & armament computers.
Para dropping equipmentsetc

Basic requirements to be met by


A/C structures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

High aerodynamic cleanness.


Low weight of construction with
necessary strength & stiffness.
Simplicity of operation.
Ensuring of high reliability, combat
survivability and flight safety
Production effectiveness.
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High aerodynamic cleanness

To ensure high combat efficiency (max


flight speed, max rate of climb,
maneuverabilityetc):
External

configuration & dimensions.


Definite parameters of power-plant.
Good stability & controllability in all flight
conditions.

Low weight of construction with


necessary strength & stiffness
The construction should be strong & rigid.
The strength & stiffness requirements
should be met at minimum weight of the
structure.

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Simplicity of operation

Combat efficiency of A/C depends on simplicity


of ground maintenance & air-operation, required:
Possibility

of fast preparation for flight.


Convenience of operation in flight.
Convenience of storage.
Safety of servicing personnel.
Presence of maintenance breaks.
Interchangeability of main components.

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Ensuring of high reliability, combat


survivability and flight safety (1)

Reliability of construction depends on:


Structural

patterns of the A/C.


Strength & stiffness of separate elements &
the whole structure.
Advanced design & manufacture of
mechanisms & systems.
Adjustment of systems.

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Ensuring of high reliability, combat


survivability and flight safety (2)

Survivability is ensured by:


Using

duplicating systems.
Double control runs.
Advanced automated fire-fighting system.
Armored placing of the crew stations & vital
unitsetc.

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Ensuring of high reliability, combat


survivability and flight safety (3)

Flight safety is ensured by:


High

reliability of equipments.
Good aerodynamic characteristics of A/C.
Abilities of pilot to counteract equipment failure posteffects.
Use of special automatics providing for combining
potentialities of the A/C with physiological abilities of
the pilot.
Means for warning of dangerous flight conditions.
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Production effectiveness
Low labour consumption.
Simple machining.
Short terms of industrial adoption.
Reduction of costs.

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Classification of A/C depending on


structural features (1)
1.

The flight principle:


a.
b.

2.

Airplane.
Helicopter.

The purpose:
a.
b.

Civil
Military:

Fighters, bombers, military cargo plantetc.

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Classification of A/C depending on


structural features (2)
3.

The structural features:


a.
b.
c.

Types, number & location of engines.


Shape, number & location of wings.
Types of take-off/ landing devicesetc.

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Definitions (1)
1.

2.
3.

Strength is the ability of a structure to take up


without destruction definite external loads
created under various operating conditions.
Stiffness is the ability a structure to resist
deformation under the action of a load.
Reliability is a property of a construction of the
A/C to operate trouble free under definite
operating conditions during a certain time
period.
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Definitions (2)
4.

5.

Combat survivability is ability of the A/C


to perform a flight according to flight
mission in a case of damage by enemy
fire.
Flight safety is characterized by absence
of incidents which are events occurring
in flight & leading to complete or partial
destruction of A/C.
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Questions

State for example the characteristic features of


military cargo plane & fighter interceptor.
On what does the flight safety depend ?
What is the main condition for ensuring reliable
operation.
What are the contradictions you find in this study
(state some properties of the A/C that causes
deterioration of others) ?
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Any Questions ?
Thank you for attention

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