You are on page 1of 26

Regulating The

Internal Environment
Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, students should be able
to
1.State the meaning of internal environment
2. Identify 3 physical factors and 3 chemical
factors affecting internal environment
3. Explain 2 necessity to maintain an optimal
environment
4. Describe the involvement of various system in
maintaining an optimal internal environment
What Is Internal
Environment?

Pair and Share


Discuss with your partner
the definition of internal
environment and share
with the class.
Factors Affecting Internal
Environment

What are they?


Factors Affecting Internal
Environment

Physical Factors Chemical Factors


Temperature Salt

Blood pressure pH value

Osmotic pressure Sugar content


Homeostasis

Rational Cloze

Read the text and


fill in the blank
Components of
Homeostasis Control
System
Component Function
Receptor ● a Receive message and
give appropriate
response
Control centre ● b Detect change
Effector ● c Receive message and
process the information
Control centre
( brain )
Temperature
Effector
Receptor

Normal 37º C Normal 37º C

R
E
Temperature
Control centre
( brain )
Negative Feedback

Pair and Share

Discuss with your partner the


negative feedback mechanism and
share with the class.
The Importance of Regulating
An Optimal Internal
Environment

Enables the organism to live in a wider range of


habitats
Metabolic activities and physiological processes can
still continue even though the external environment
fluctuates substantially
A stable internal environment allows enzymes to
function at an optimal rate
The Importance of Homeostasis

=
The Importance of Regulating
An Optimal Internal
Environment
ACTIVITY
In your group, discus about the
regulation of the factor affecting
internal environment and the system
involved in the process.
1.Concentration of oxygen and carbon
dioxide
2.The blood glucose level and pH level
3.Blood osmotic pressure and waste
products
Presentation
DISCUSSION

Regulation of body temperature

Body temperature is regulated by integumentary


system, nervous system, circulatory system,
muscular system and endocrine system

When the body temperature rise above the


normal level, the receptors in the skin detect the
changes.

This information is transmitted to the


hypothalamus, the temperature regulatory
centre in the brain.
Hypothalamus activates various effectors such
as blood vessels and sweat gland.

Blood vessels dilate to allow more blood flow near


the surface of the body. This will increase heat
loss to the external environment.

Sweat gland produces more sweat that will lower


the body temperature through evaporation.

The RESULT ???


Hypothalamus

-Temperature increase

Skin receptors
Sweat gland

Blood vessel

Normal 37º
Regulation of concentration of oxygen and
carbon dioxide

Is regulated by respiratory, circulatory and nervous


system.

Circulatory system transport oxygen from the lungs


to the body cells.
Carbon dioxide is removed from the body cells into
the bloodstream and transported back to the lungs.

Changes in concentration of O2 and CO2 is


detected by nervous system.
For example, decrease in O2 and increase in
CO2 concentration during physical activities is
detected by nervous system.
As a result, the breathing and pulse rates
_______ so that the normal concentration of
O2 and CO2 is attained.
Regulation of blood glucose level

Regulated by endocrine, circulatory and digestive


system.
When the level of blood glucose rises,
- pancreas secretes insulin into the
circulatory
system to the liver.
-insulin converts excess glucose into
glycogen

If the blood glucose level drops.


- if the blood glucose level is below the set
point,
pancreas secretes glucagon to breakdown
glycogen into glucose .
Other regulations
Blood osmotic pressure and the balance of water
and dissolved substances in body fluids is controlled
by nervous, endocrine, excretory and circulatory
system.

Chemical contents ( waste product of metabolism


eg. urea ) is regulated by excretory, circulatory,
nervous and endocrine system.

pH level is regulated by respiratory,


circulatoryand exretory system.
pH level is maintained by controlling the
concentration of hydrogen ions, hydroxyl ions and
hydrogen carbonate ions.
ASSESMENT
1. Maintenance of constant internal environment
is known as __________

2. Which are NOT included in chemical factors


that affecting internal environment?
A.pH value
B.Blood glucose level
C.Body temperature
D.Salt content
3. Which of the following are the physical factors
that affect the internal environment of
organism?
i. Temperature
ii. Blood pressure
iii. Osmotic pressure
iv. pH
A.i and ii
B.ii and iv
C.i, ii and iii
D.ii, iii and iv
4.Which of the following systems are involved in
regulating the concentration of oxygen and carbon
dioxide in the blood stream?
I respiratory system
II endocrine system
III circulatory system
IV nervous system
A.I and II
B.III and IV
C.I, II and III
D.I, III and IV
The systems involved in regulating blood glucose
level are
A.Endocrine, circulatory and digestive system
B.Endocrine ,circulatory and nervous system
C.Respiratory, digestive and nervous system
D.Respiratory, endocrine and circulatory
summary
THANK YOU