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Regulating The

Internal Environment
Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, students should be able
1.State the meaning of internal environment
2. Identify 3 physical factors and 3 chemical
factors affecting internal environment
3. Explain 2 necessity to maintain an optimal
4. Describe the involvement of various system in
maintaining an optimal internal environment
What Is Internal

Pair and Share

Discuss with your partner
the definition of internal
environment and share
with the class.
Factors Affecting Internal

What are they?

Factors Affecting Internal

Physical Factors Chemical Factors

Temperature Salt

Blood pressure pH value

Osmotic pressure Sugar content


Rational Cloze

Read the text and

fill in the blank
Components of
Homeostasis Control
Component Function
Receptor ● a Receive message and
give appropriate
Control centre ● b Detect change
Effector ● c Receive message and
process the information
Control centre
( brain )

Normal 37º C Normal 37º C

Control centre
( brain )
Negative Feedback

Pair and Share

Discuss with your partner the

negative feedback mechanism and
share with the class.
The Importance of Regulating
An Optimal Internal

Enables the organism to live in a wider range of

Metabolic activities and physiological processes can
still continue even though the external environment
fluctuates substantially
A stable internal environment allows enzymes to
function at an optimal rate
The Importance of Homeostasis

The Importance of Regulating
An Optimal Internal
In your group, discus about the
regulation of the factor affecting
internal environment and the system
involved in the process.
1.Concentration of oxygen and carbon
2.The blood glucose level and pH level
3.Blood osmotic pressure and waste

Regulation of body temperature

Body temperature is regulated by integumentary

system, nervous system, circulatory system,
muscular system and endocrine system

When the body temperature rise above the

normal level, the receptors in the skin detect the

This information is transmitted to the

hypothalamus, the temperature regulatory
centre in the brain.
Hypothalamus activates various effectors such
as blood vessels and sweat gland.

Blood vessels dilate to allow more blood flow near

the surface of the body. This will increase heat
loss to the external environment.

Sweat gland produces more sweat that will lower

the body temperature through evaporation.

The RESULT ???


-Temperature increase

Skin receptors
Sweat gland

Blood vessel

Normal 37º
Regulation of concentration of oxygen and
carbon dioxide

Is regulated by respiratory, circulatory and nervous


Circulatory system transport oxygen from the lungs

to the body cells.
Carbon dioxide is removed from the body cells into
the bloodstream and transported back to the lungs.

Changes in concentration of O2 and CO2 is

detected by nervous system.
For example, decrease in O2 and increase in
CO2 concentration during physical activities is
detected by nervous system.
As a result, the breathing and pulse rates
_______ so that the normal concentration of
O2 and CO2 is attained.
Regulation of blood glucose level

Regulated by endocrine, circulatory and digestive

When the level of blood glucose rises,
- pancreas secretes insulin into the
system to the liver.
-insulin converts excess glucose into

If the blood glucose level drops.

- if the blood glucose level is below the set
pancreas secretes glucagon to breakdown
glycogen into glucose .
Other regulations
Blood osmotic pressure and the balance of water
and dissolved substances in body fluids is controlled
by nervous, endocrine, excretory and circulatory

Chemical contents ( waste product of metabolism

eg. urea ) is regulated by excretory, circulatory,
nervous and endocrine system.

pH level is regulated by respiratory,

circulatoryand exretory system.
pH level is maintained by controlling the
concentration of hydrogen ions, hydroxyl ions and
hydrogen carbonate ions.
1. Maintenance of constant internal environment
is known as __________

2. Which are NOT included in chemical factors

that affecting internal environment?
A.pH value
B.Blood glucose level
C.Body temperature
D.Salt content
3. Which of the following are the physical factors
that affect the internal environment of
i. Temperature
ii. Blood pressure
iii. Osmotic pressure
iv. pH
A.i and ii
B.ii and iv
C.i, ii and iii
D.ii, iii and iv
4.Which of the following systems are involved in
regulating the concentration of oxygen and carbon
dioxide in the blood stream?
I respiratory system
II endocrine system
III circulatory system
IV nervous system
A.I and II
B.III and IV
C.I, II and III
D.I, III and IV
The systems involved in regulating blood glucose
level are
A.Endocrine, circulatory and digestive system
B.Endocrine ,circulatory and nervous system
C.Respiratory, digestive and nervous system
D.Respiratory, endocrine and circulatory