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SQUEEZE CASTING

Muhammed Labeeb

Squeeze casting
Also known as liquid-metal forging
Near net shape process - the initial production of the item is very close to the
final (net) shape, reducing the need for surface finishing
Combination of casting and forging
Squeeze casting is simple and economical, efficient in its use of raw material
The process generates the highest mechanical properties attainable in a cast
product
The process was introduced in the United States in 1960 and has since gained
widespread acceptance

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Squeeze casting
The squeeze casting process uses an accurately measured or metered quantity
of molten metal which is poured into a heated mould via a launder
The mould is closed to produce an internal cavity in the shape of the required
component
The mould is coated with a suitable release agent and for squeeze casting it is
usually in the form of a graphite coating
Pressure continues to be applied to the molten metal until it has solidified and
forms the required component
The press is then withdrawn and the component is ejected

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Squeeze casting
Non ferrous alloys like aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloy components are
readily manufactured using this process
The squeeze casting process, combining the advantages of the casting and
forging processes, has been widely used to produce quality castings
Because of the high pressure applied during solidification, porosities caused by
both gas and shrinkage can be prevented or eliminated
The cooling rate of the casting can be increased by applying high pressure during
solidification, since that contact between the casting and the die is improved by
pressurization, which results in the foundation of fine-grained structures

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Squeeze casting process

Squeeze casting consists of


entering liquid metal into a
preheated, lubricated die and
forging the metal while it
solidifies

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Squeeze casting process

The load is applied shortly after


the metal begins to freeze and
is maintained until the entire
casting has solidified

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Casting parameters
Casting temperatures depend on the alloy and the part geometry. The starting
point is normally 6 to 55C above the liquidus temperature.
Tooling temperatures ranging from 190 to 315C are normally used
Pressure levels of 50 to 140 MPa are normally used
Lubrication For aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys, a good grade of
colloidal graphite spray lubricant has proved satisfactory when sprayed on the
warm dies prior to casting

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Advantages
Offers a broader range of shapes and components than other manufacturing
methods
Little or no machining required post casting process
Low levels of porosity
Good surface texture
Fine micro-structures with higher strength components
No waste material, 100% utilization

Disadvantages
Costs are very high due to complex tooling
No flexibility as tooling is dedicated to specific components
Process needs to be accurately controlled which slows the cycle time down and
increases process costs.
High costs mean high production volumes are necessary to justify equipment
investment

REFERENCES
ASM Metals Hand Book, 9th edn, Vol 15, Casting, ASM, Metals Park, (1983)