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CHAPTER 3

TISSUES

TISSUES
A tissue is a group/collection of cells
having similar origin, structure, and
function.
These tissues are classified according to
the size, shape and functions of these
cells.
4 TYPES of TISSUES:
1. Epithelial tissue (covering)
2. Connective tissue (support)
3. Muscular tissue (movement)
4. Nervous tissue (control)

I. EPITHELIAL TISSUE:

The underside of this tissue


is anchored to a connective
tissue by a thin non-living
layer called basement
membrane or basal
lamina. It (1) reproduces
readily; (2) heal rapidly into
new cells, replacing the
damaged or lost ones. It has
no blood supply, but is
nourished by nutrients
obtained from the blood
vessels in the underlying
connective tissue.

I. EPITHELIAL TISSUE:
Also
This

called epithelium.

group of tissues is
found covering the body
and lining cavities &
hollow organs, forms the
major portion of many
human glands.

FUNCTIONS:
1.

2.
3.

Protects the underlying tissues from


dehydration, mechanical irritation,
toxic substances and trauma.
Absorbs gases and nutrients.
Transports nutrients, fluids, mucus, and
other particulate matter.

FUNCTIONS:
4.
5.
6.

Secreting cell products such as


enzymes, sweat, and hormones.
In kidney epithelium, it functions in the
excretion of waste products.
Other epithelium specialized for
sensory reception occurs in ears, nose,
and taste buds.

MAJOR SHAPES OF EPITHELIAL


TISSUES
1.
2.
3.

Squamous cells flattened cells


Cuboidal cells cube-like shape
Columnar cells are tall and
cylindrical cells

LAYERS OF EPITHELIAL CELLS


1.

Simple consists of single layer of


sheet

2.

Stratified consists of 2 or more


layers

LAYERS OF EPITHELIAL CELLS


3.

4.

Pseudostratified appears to have


more than one layer but is really a
single sheet of cells having different
heights, noting that all cells touch the
basement.
Transitional shape changes in
response to mechanical stretching.

GLANDS
In

addition to the protective and absorptive


functions, the epithelium has secretory function
in the form of glands called glandular
epithelium.

2 TYPES OF GLANDS
1. Endocrine glands secretes chemical
regulators called hormones that drains
directly into the blood stream, thus it is called
ductless glands.
2. Exocrine glands secretes their products
into the ducts, thus they are called ducted
glands.

ENDOCRINE GLAND

EXOCRINE GLAND

Exocrine glands are classified according to:

I. NUMBER of CELLS
A.

Unicellular glands contains only


one cell.

Ex: Goblet Cell found in the digestive


tract, secretes a glycoprotein called
mucin which when added with water will
produce mucus.

Exocrine glands are classified according to:

I. NUMBER of CELLS
B.

Multicellular glands contains


numerous cells that produces a
secretion..

1.

Simple Multicellular Glands


have numerous cells that have ducts
that do not branch
a)

Simple Tubular ducts secretions


are given off into a straight line tube
that opens into the epithelial surface,
no duct present. Ex. intestinal gland

B. MULTICELLULAR GLANDS
1. Simple Multicellular Glands (cont.)
b)

c)

d)

Simple Coiled ducts secretory


units have coiled tubules that
convey secretions into the surface,
it has unbranched duct. Ex. Sweat
Glands
Branched tubular secretory unit
is tubular and has branches, ducts
maybe absent. Ex. Gastric glands,
uterine glands
Branched acinar (alveolar)
secretory unit is shape like a sac,
have several acini that are arranged
along a duct. Ex. Sebaceous (oil)
gland

B. MULTICELLULAR GLANDS
2. Compound Multicellular Glands
a)

b)

c)

Compound tubular gland


secretory unit is tubular with many
branches. Ex. Liver, testes
Compound acinar glands
secretory unit is saclike with many
branches. Ex. Submandibular
glands, sublingual glands
Tubuloacinar glands secretory
units are both tubular and sac like
with many branches. Ex. Pancreas,
parotid glands.

REVIEW

REVIEW

II. CONNECTIVE TISSUE:


Connective tissue is found everywhere in
the body.
It is the most numerous tissues in the body.
The origin of all connective tissues is
mesenchyme (an embryonic tissue)
Serve to support the body and binds
together body parts and other tissues.
Because of its matrix, connective tissue is
able to bear weight, withstand great
tension, and endure abuses such as
physical trauma and abrasion that no other
tissue would be able to tolerate.

Functions of Connective Tissues


1.
2.
3.
4.

Binding and support (connective


tissue proper)
Protection (adipose tissue, blood,
bone)
Transport (blood)
Insulation (Adipose tissue)

Structural elements of
connective tissue:
1.
2.

Extracellular matrix (ground


substance)
Cells

General Types of
CONNECTIVE TISSUES
According to
the CHARACTERISTICS of
their Matrix and Ground
Substance

1. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER


This

tissue contains numerous fibers


with a semi-fluid ground substance

A. Loose or Areolar Connective


tissues
Consists of several types of cells
embedded in a matrix of loosely
arranged fibers. Its function is to bind
together tissues and to hold tissue
fluids. Usually located beneath the skin,
between muscles, and beneath most
epithelial layers.

A. Loose or Areolar Connective tissues


1.

Fibroblast manufacture the protein


fiber of the tissue and ground
substance, as well as hyaluronic acid
that serves as spreading factor of
many cells.

A. Loose or Areolar Connective tissues


2.

Histiocytes are phagocytic cells that


engulf and destroy foreign agents in
the tissue.

A. Loose or Areolar Connective tissues


3.

Lymphocytes a type of WBC that


helps boost up our immune system.

A. Loose or Areolar Connective tissues


4.

Mast cells contain granules in their


cytoplasm called histamine that
function during allergic and
inflammatory reactions.

A. Loose or Areolar Connective tissues


5.

Collagen fibers produces the


protein collagen which forms fibers
with high tensile strength and
flexibility.

I. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER


B. Dense Connective Tissues
Their collagen and elastic fibers are more
closely packed, tissues are denser. Its
function is to bind organs together.
Usually seen in tendons and ligaments.
1.

Dense Regular
Connective tissue
collagen fibers are
arranged in parallel
bundles.
Ex. Aponeurosis

I. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER


B. Dense Connective Tissues
Irregularly dense
connective tissue
collagen fibers are in
irregular bundles.
Ex. Found in muscle and
bones.
2.

I. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER


B. Dense Connective Tissues
3.

Reticular connective tissue


has delicate fibers forming a
network called reticulum. This
netwotk supports soft organs
such as the spleen, lymph
nodes, and liver. These fibers
are synthesized by reticular
fibers.

I. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER


B. Dense Connective Tissues
4.

Adipose or fat tissue these


cells expand with fat droplets
and push the nucleus into the
rim of the cytoplasm, thus
resembling a ring. Usually found
beneath the skin, around the
kidneys, behind the eyeballs,
and on the surface of the heart.
Its function is to protect,
insulate the body against heat
loss and serves as storage depot
for fat for energy production.

I. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER


B. Dense Connective Tissues
5.

Elastic connective tissue


contains numerous
branching elastic fibers
arranged in parallel strands
or networks. Fibroblasts are
seen in between fibers.
Found in elastic ligaments
such as, in between adjacent
vertebrae, in vocal chords,
walls of large arteries.

II. CARTILAGE
Cartilage

is a type of connective tissue that


is hard but elastic in nature.
These fibers are produced by cartilage cells
called chondroblast, eventually these
chondroblast becomes trapped in their
products and revert to mature cells called
chondrocytes.
The substances of cartilage forms a rubberlike mixture of proteins and proteoglycans,
associated with carbohydrate units.
No blood is seen on cartilage

TYPES OF CARTILAGE
A.

Hyaline Cartilage
The most abundant type
of cartilage in the body,
but the weakest.
Under the microscope,
chondrocytes are seen in
spaces called lacunae.
Seen at the end of long
bones, external ears, fetal
skeleton, nose, larynx,
trachea, and bronchi.

Its function is for support,


protection, and provides
framework.

TYPES OF CARTILAGE
C.

Fibrous cartilage
or Fibtocartilage
Strongest type of
cartilage with dense
collagen fibers and
limited amount of
ground substance.

Seen in body areas


that bear great
amount of weight, like
symphysis pubis, skull
and vertebrae.

REVIEW

III. BONE
It

is the hardest connective tissue.


It is made up of cells, collagen fibers,
and dense mineralized substance.
Much stronger than cartilage because it
contains inorganic salts of calcium and
phosphate called hydroxyappatite
crystals.
This

is the main component of the bone


which is responsible for its hardness.

It

has a rich blood supply.

PARTS OF A BONE
1.

Compact or Dense Bone solid part


and present in the external portion of
long bones.

PARTS OF A BONE
2.

Cancellous or Spongy Bone weblike structure of thin plates called


trabeculae. This bone encloses the
marrow space of long bones and is
internal to the compact bone

TYPES OF BONE CELLS


1.

Osteoblast young bone cell that


synthesize the components of bone.

2.

Osteocyte mature bone cell that


exist within the lacunae in the matrix.

3.

Osteoclast this destroys bone and


remodels it.

IV. BLOOD
Blood

is fluidized connective tissue


It provides communication between
different parts of the body and with the
external environment. Blood involved in
transportation, regulation and protection
functions.
Blood is a very good suspension, blood cells
are suspended in plasma.
Different types of blood cells are red blood
cells (R.B.Cs), white blood cells (W.B.Cs)
and platelets. Blood contains red colored
pigment called hemoglobin.

IV. BLOOD

III. MUSCLE TISSUE


This

tissue has the ability to exert force


when it contracts and generally
produces movement.
Cells are elongated to support their
contracting function.
Its cytoplasm is called sarcoplasm

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TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE


Skeletal muscle tissue or
striated voluntary muscle
These tissues are attached to the
skeleton.
Requires nervous stimulation.
It is called voluntary muscle
because the person can control
its movement.
Microscopically, it has striations,
and is multinucleated.
Ex. Muscles of the arms and legs.
1.

TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE


Smooth muscle or nonstriated involuntary muscles
Also called visceral muscle
because it is associated with the
internal organs.
It is called smooth because it
has no cross-striations.
Does not require any nervous
stimulation thus it is called
involuntary muscle, because its
contraction is continuous.
It has a uninucleated, centrally
located nucleus.
Ex. GI tract, respiratory tract,
genitor-urinary tract
2.

TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE


Cardiac muscle or striated
involuntary muscle
Found only in heart.
Does not require any nervous
stimulation.
It has cross striation and its
branching fibers contain cells
joined to one another by a
specialized cell junction
called intercalated disks.
It has a uninucleated,
centrally located nucleus.
3.

IV. NERVOUS TISSUE


This

tissue makes up the brain,


spinal cord, and various nerves of
the body.
It is the most highly organized
tissue in the body because it
controls and coordinates body
activities.
It relays stimuli from the brain to
the body.
Its function is for communication
(receive, transmit, and interpret
the nerve impulses)

2 TYPES OF NERVOUS TISSUE


1.

Neurons
conducting cells,
this is the basic unit
of organization of
the nervous tissue.
Functional

unit of the
nervous system.

2.

Neuroglial cells
are supporting cells
of the nervous
tissue.

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