Presented by

Shikha Prakash

The World’s smallest continent

The World’s largest island

History of Australia

Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain. Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.
Area Total: 7,686,850 sq km land: 7,617,930 sq km water: 68,920 sq km

Economic indicators for Australia

Currency: 1Australian Dollar ($A or AUD) = 100 cents

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Capital :


Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Trade organizations: WTO and Bilateral Trade GDP by sector: Agriculture (3.4%) mining (4.9%) industry (23.2%) services (68.4%) Main partners: Japan 19.6% China 10.2% South Korea 7.7% US 7.4% New Zealand 7.2%

Symbolizes: Australia's

history as six British colonies and the principle on which Australia federation is based.

Southern cross

It is a constellation in southern hemisphere which in British times used to represent Australia representing the 6 States of Australia and the Territories

Population: Age structure: 21,007,310 (July 2008 est.) 0-14 years: 18.8% 15-64 years: 67.9% 65 years and over: 13.3% total: 37.1 years male: 36.4 years female: 37.9 years (2008 est.) 1.221% (2008 est.) 1 male / female 12.55 births/1,000 population 6.68 deaths/1,000 population

Median age:

Population growth rate: Sex ratio: Birth rate: Death rate:

It divides the market into groups based on social class, lifestyle and personality characteristics Social class Social grade Description of occupation Example

A B C1 C2 D


higher managerial administrative or professionals Intermediate managerial administrative or professionals supervisory clerical, junior administrative or professionals Skilled manual workers Semi or unskilled manual workers. state pensioners with no other widows and casual and low wage earners

company Director Middle manager

Bank Cleark Plumber Labours unemployed



Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%, non-Christian 11%, other 12.6%



Languages Spoken: English is the primary language. In 1788 there were 250 different languages but now only 20 languages survives.


The current cultural scenario in Australia is a perfect blend of the Australian Aboriginal Culture and the European influence. Natives of Australia followed their own indigenous cultural traditions and evolved their own arts and crafts. But during the world war 2 the Europeans who migrated to Australia also influenced its culture lot. Art and Crafts in Australia, marked by the multicultural impacts. Architecture in Australia developed under the skilled oversight of the European settlers. Australian Cuisine originally synonymous with English cooking has now become a vibrant blend of Turkish, Italian, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Greek and Arab culinary styles.

Business etiquettes of Australia

Emotions and feelings are not important in the Australian business climate. Australians are very direct in the way they communicate. There is often an element of humor, often self-deprecating, in their speech. Aussies often use colorful language that would be unthinkable in other countries. Appointments are necessary and relatively easy to schedule. They should be made with as much lead time as possible. Punctuality is important in business situations. It is better to arrive a few minutes early than to keep someone waiting.

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Business etiquettes
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Australians get down to business quickly with a minimum amount of small talk.
Australian handshakes are firm and quick. Women typically don't shake hands with one another in Australia. Business dress is conservative in Melbourne and Sydney Men should wear a dark colored, conservative business suit. Women should wear a smart dress or a business suit. Arrive on time in Australia is very important. Business cards are exchanged at the initial introduction

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India and Australia trade relations

India Australia trade relations can be traced back to when the first Australian ship laden with coal came to India in 1801 as a part of the East India Company.

India Australia trade relations are active today but their full potential has still not been achieved.
There is considerable scope for development in India Australia trade relations.

Australian merchandise trade with India
Australian merchandise trade with India, 2007 Exports to India (A$m): Imports from India (A$m): Total share Rank Growth (YOY) 9,288 5.5% 1,459 0.8% 6th 24th 10th 5.4% 14.0% 6.5%

Total trade (export + import) (A$m): 10,746 3.0%

Australia's merchandise exports to India

Major Australian exports, 2007 (A$m) Non-monetary gold Coal Copper ores Wool 4,167 2,396 1,113 151

Major Australian imports, 2007 (A$m) Pearls & gems Rotating electric plant Jewellery Medicaments (incl. veterinary) 108 88 63 38

Australia's trade in services with India, 2007: Exports of services to India (A$m): Imports of services from India (A$m): 2,062 459

Total share: 4.3% 1.0%

Indian merchandise exporters to Australia in the textile sector are
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. men's clothing women's clothin Make up articles textile yarn floor coverings

The Indian merchandise exporters to Australia are
1. 2. 3. 4. Leather Footwear travel good leather goods

Australia’s investment in India

The total value of Australian investments in India during the period August 1991 to December 2003 was Rs 67986.2 million or A$ 2124.6 million.

India’s investment in Australia

Major Indian investments in Australia include that by India‟s Oswal Group to construct an ammonia plant at Karratha. The Aditya Birla Group has acquired copper mines at Nifty (Western Australia) and Mt Gordon (Queensland).

Asian Paints acquired Pacific Paints in the State of Queensland.
The Oberoi Hotels International manages the Hotel Windsor in Melbourne

Australia India Council (AIC)

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The Australia-India Council (AIC) was established on 21 May 1992 The Council's purpose is to broaden the relationship between Australia and India by encouraging and supporting contacts and increasing levels of knowledge and understanding between the peoples and institutions of the two countries. The Council initiates or supports a range of activities designed to promote a greater awareness of Australia in India and a greater awareness of India in Australia These include visits and exchanges between the two countries, development of institutional links, and support of studies in each country of the other. The Council offers support, in the form of funding, for projects likely to contribute to the development of the relationship, within the context of AIC objectives and guidelines.

Utsav Australia (Celebrate Australia) is an Australian Government's initiative to accelerate Australia‟s commercial engagement with India. To help, tap the enormous potential flowing from India‟s growth opportunities the Australian Government has launched "Utsav Australia"(Celebrate Australia) – a major promotional programme.

It is a sustained marketing and promotions program to raise awareness of Australian business and industry amongst the Indian business community.
It creates awareness on Australia‟s capabilities and showcase Australian expertise across a wide range of sectors to further strengthen Australian exports to India. It is managed by Australian Trade Commission. Utsav Australia programmed features events, promotional activities, awareness seminars & outreach programmes across India.

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Trade Policy of Australia

Australia shielded its industry for most of the past decades behind tariff protection.
Australia began to reduce its tariff including in its most protected industries such as automobiles and textiles in the 1980s. The Australian economy has since reaped as the result of tariff reduction productivity increased and international competition also increases.

Customs Valuation and Tariff Of Australia

The Australian Government has planned for the progressive reduction of tariff protection for local industry.
Tariff reduction programme has already reduced 48% of Australian tariff to zero and 35%. About 86% of tariff rates now range between zero and 5%. The average applied most-favoured-nation (MFN) rate for industrial products is 4.6%, while the applied MFN tariff for agricultural products is less than 1%.

Anti-dumping and Countervailing Duties

Where a consignment of goods has been imported to Australia, or is likely to be imported, and an Australian industry producing the like goods believes there are reasonable grounds, an applicant may apply for a dumping duty and/or a countervailing duty notice to be published. Australia has initiated a number of anti-dumping proceedings against certain countries including China.
Goods subject to Anti dumping measures are: Preserved Pineapple, mushrooms and certain other chemicals.

Marking and Trade Descriptions

Importers are required to ensure that goods entering Australia are correctly labeled.
It is an offence to import goods that do not bear a required trade description, or bear a false trade description. Imported goods that require a trade description must be marked with the name of the country in which the goods are made and a true description of the goods in English language, in legible characters and in prominent position with weight or quantity

Documentary Requirements
♦ Bill of lading
♦ Export costing Out of Australia ♦ Purchase Order ♦ Pro-forma Invoice ♦ Commercial Invoice ♦ Packing list ♦ Packing Declaration ♦ Beneficiary Certificate

♦ Certificate of Origin
♦ Drafts & Lodgments ♦Forward Exchange ♦ Dangerous Good Declaration Form

Product Standards and Consumer Protection

Australia is a signatory to the WTO Standards Code and has agreed to the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.
Liability laws provide consumers with a ready cause of action against the manufactures or importers of defective products. The Trade Practices Act prohibits restrictive or unfair trade practices, misleading or deceptive conduct, false representations, deceptive offering of gifts and prizes in connection with the sale or promotion of the goods and services.

Free Trade Areas

An FTA is a contractual agreement between two or more parties under which they give each other preferential market access.
Australia has 5 existing Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with important trading partners and is in negotiations and discussions for further agreements with a number of countries. Australia‟s FTAs cover trade in goods and services, as well as other non-tariff issues such as the recognition of standards, customs cooperation, the protection of intellectual property rights and the regulation of foreign investment.

Australia Free Trade Agreements
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The Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement,(1st Jan, 2009) The Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), (January, 2005)

The Australia-Thailand Free Trade Agreement (TAFTA), (January, 2005)
Singapore-Australia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA), (July, 2003) The Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Agreement (ANZCERTA), (1983)

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Future FTA‟s

The Government is currently negotiating a range of Free Trade Agreements with:
China Malaysia and ASEAN Japan the Gulf Cooperation Council Australia/New Zealand – ASEAN And conducting a joint study on an agreement with South Korea.


3. 4. 5.


Australia’s retail industry

Australia‟s retail industry country‟s major economic forces and is the largest employer, providing a platform for entrepreneurship and innovation. Factory outlet centers selling excess product. According to a survey 4 out of top 10 unsalaried CEO‟s in Australia were retailers and if we include retail banking then it is 6 out of 10. It is estimated that more than 50% of the adult population is currently working or has worked at some time in their life in the retail industry. Highlight “the magnitude of the retail industry in Australia.”  More than 77,000 retailers in Australia;  operating more than 200,000 retail outlets; and  producing more than $200 billion in annual sale  growing at more than 6% compound per year

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Australia’s retail history

In 1880s, gold mining, wool and wheat exports created wealth, the „well to do‟ came to view shopping as a form of entertainment.
In the first half of the nineteenth century, large department stores became a prominent feature of the Australian retailing landscape. The first department store opened in Sydney‟s in 1838 – a David Jones store. Today, only four department store chains remain in Australia – Myer, David Jones, Harris Scarfe and Dimmeys-Forges. The Westfield Group became a driving force in the development and management of shopping centers in Australia and subsequently the world over.

Australia Retail History

The evolution of supermarkets has also had a large impact on Australia‟s retail landscape.
Woolworths is the Australasia‟s top retailer with annual sales of $31.1 billion and Coles is the second with $28.6 billion in sales annually. Franchising has become a major retail model for expansion in Australia over the past three decades. In Australia, franchising is regulated by the Franchising Code of Conduct, one of the most comprehensive codes anywhere in the world.

Home furnishing market in Australia

The total Australian market for furnishing fabrics is estimated to be approximately A$60 million.
The market is dominated by imports.

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Climatic variations over the Australian continent play a part in choice of fabrics and colors.
Although the furnishing fabrics industry is a fashion industry, the home furnishings market must cater for a variety of tastes. Color trends and textures vary. Chenille, jacquards and textured fabrics are popular at present. In general, Australians do not change their home decoration schemes as frequently as Europeans or Americans. The average Australian changes their decor every ten (or even twenty) years.

Apparel Market

The apparel market in Australia is well developed, with consumers knowledgeable, discriminating and selective.
Total market for apparel is estimated at US$1.869 million. Australian buyers attend major international collection releases and purchase directly from the shows. Formal and working fashion trends are sourced from Europe, and leisure and sports fashion from the U.S.

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China is Australia‟s largest supplier of apparel having 73% import share.


2. 3.

Along with designer wear, the three main product areas that Australian companies specialize in are: Industrial work wear Socks and hosiery, especially pantyhose Female outerwear, such as dresses and skirts.

The apparel industry has become a modern, well-equipped sector that is highly specialized, with particular firms concentrating on particular market segments.
The textile, clothing and footwear industries are heavily concentrated in the states of Victoria and New South Wales.


Modern Australia has a unique fashion style with a casual approach.
Fashion is distinguished from dress by its nature in that is been fashioned or created, often by hand, and it reflects the prevailing styles in 'polite society' rather than being based on function. Fashion can be defined by colour, cut, cloth, garment type, garment styles and interpretation of looks. Many of Australia's top designers have been inspired by an extraordinary range of Australian fashion textiles and cultural influences

Chinese and Japanese silks and Egyptian cottons
Chinese silk embroidered shawls and Chinese surcoats brought into Australia by Chinese Australians in the late 1800s through to the 1930s have influenced the choice of cloth, cut and colour of Australian fashion Women in the 1920s and 1930s wore silk and embroidered evening coats and overblouses made of chiffon, georgette or velvet.

Coats and stoles 1920s - 1930s The cut and style of overdresses and coats in Australian fashion have been influenced by Chinese and Egyptian surcoats and Japanese kimonos.

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Trousers and jackets 1930s - present Frocks - the mini skirt 1965 - present

- The cut of frock

which has had most influence on Australian fashion was the mini skirt.
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Sarongs, saris and skirts 1970s Headwear and millinery- Due to the lack of imported hats and the need to wear a hat in hot climate areas, cabbage palm hats were also a popular item of early Australian dress. These hats are significant as the only distinctive item of Australian dress made entirely from Australian materials, with the plaiting often done by local Aboriginal groups.

Fashion events in Australia

L'Oréal Melbourne Fashion Festival  It showcases the autumn/winter collections of Australia's leading designers in a stunning range of venues throughout Melbourne.  The Festival is a consumer event with tickets to events available to purchase by the general public.
Fashion Exposed & Preview  It is Australia‟s largest Fashion Buying Trade Fair.  Held over three days, twice a year.  It is timed to provide an unequalled opportunity for the fashion industry to source the very best of fashion and accessories as part of their seasonal buying.  Spring/Summer held in March in Sydney and Autumn/Winter held in September in Melbourne.

Perth Fashion Festival  It is 9-day festival.  It has thirty fashion events, with sixteen spectacular free-to-the-public fashion parades, nine fabulous designer runway shows and a Fashion Bar.

Melbourne Spring Fashion Week  This is the fashion event in spring, featuring all the hottest designers, labels, styles and retailers in and around Melbourne.  A true showcase of all the beauty, fashion and style.  There is a fashion event to suit everyone - day or night - from glamorous Official Evening Parades at the Melbourne

Australian Fashion Weeks - Sydney and Melbourne

- More than 150 Australian designers participate in the Australian Fashion
Weeks each year - held twice each year with Spring/Summer collections in Sydney in May and Autumn/Winter collections in Melbourne in October and November. These events are attended by international fashion buyers and fashion media

Australian designers

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Lisa ho Lisa Ho has been at the forefront of the Australian Fashion Industry for the past 22 years.

Bare by Rebecca Davies A focused fashion outlook has propelled Davies to the top of the Australian and international fashion world.

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Nicola Finetti In 1995, the Nicola Finneti label was born. His design philosophy: "To create for women who can show sensuality in a modern silhouette."

Alex Perry Nicknamed as 'Australia’s Most Glamorous Designer', Alex Perry has dressed some of the world's most beautiful women since he launched his label ten years ago.

Other Designers
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Akira Isogawa Arabella Ramsay Carla Zampatti Claude Maus Collette Dinnigan Easton Pearson Jason Grech Lisa Ho Martin Grant Mary Shackman Peter Alexander Prue Acton Ray Brown Rivers Saba Tina Kalivas Wayne Cooper Zimmerman

Trade fairs held in Australia
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China Clothing & Textiles Expo Craft & Quilt Fair-Newcastle Australasian Quilt Convention Stitch & Craft-Melbourne Stitch & Creative Crafts Show - Belfast Craft & Quilt Fair-Perth Craft & Quilt Fair-Sydney Craft & Quilt Fair-Hobart Craft & Quilt Fair - Melbourne Craft & Quilt Fair-Canberra Decoration + Design Australian Shoe Fair Gift and Homewares Australia Trade Fair Reed Gift Fair - Sydney

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