ELECTRICAL MACHINE
EEP 3243
Lt C d r O n g K h ye Li t R M N a 27 Jan 2010
1
RECAP/ADDITION
2
Ideal Transformer Under Load; Current Ratio
• So the current ratio under load is the same as at no-load: N1I1 = N2I2
then
•
3
Impedance Ratio
• An impedance Zx between the primary terminal given by:
• •
• The secondary sees an impedance Z given by:
• Zx can be expressed in another way:
4
Reactance
• C a p a ci ve re a cta n ce ti • • ve • C o n d u cti re a cta n ce

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

56 views

ELECTRICAL MACHINE
EEP 3243
Lt C d r O n g K h ye Li t R M N a 27 Jan 2010
1
RECAP/ADDITION
2
Ideal Transformer Under Load; Current Ratio
• So the current ratio under load is the same as at no-load: N1I1 = N2I2
then
•
3
Impedance Ratio
• An impedance Zx between the primary terminal given by:
• •
• The secondary sees an impedance Z given by:
• Zx can be expressed in another way:
4
Reactance
• C a p a ci ve re a cta n ce ti • • ve • C o n d u cti re a cta n ce

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Colonel Wm. T. McLyman High Reliability Magnetic Devices Electrical Engineering & Electronics, 115 2002
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You are on page 1of 36

EEP 3243

Lt C d r O n g K h ye Lia t R M N

27 Jan 2010

1

RECAP/ADDITION

2

Ideal Transformer Under Load;

Current Ratio

• So the current ratio

under load is the

same as at no-load:

N1I1 = N2I2

then

•

3

Impedance Ratio

• An impedance Zx between the primary terminal

given by:

•

•

• The secondary sees an impedance Z given by:

4

Reactance

• C a p a citive re a cta n ce

•

•

• C o n d u ctive re a cta n ce

•

5

Shifting Impedances from

Secondary to Primary

While shifting from secondary to primary,

these rules applied:

by a2.

• Shifted voltage E values becomes aE.

• Shifted current I values becomes I/a.

• The secondary of the transformer is on

open-circuit and both current are zero,

therefore can remove the transformer. 6

7

Shifting Impedances from

Primary to Secondary

While shifting from primary to secondary, these

rules applied:

Shifted voltage E values becomes E/a.

Shifted current I values becomes aI.

The primary of the transformer is on open-circuit

and both current are zero, therefore can remove

the ideal transformer completely.

8

9

PROBLEM 1

10

Practical Transformer

• In th e re a lw o u ld th e w in d in g s o f

tra n sfo rm e r h a ve re sista n ce a n d th e

co re s a re n o t in fin ite ly p e rm e a b le . S o

th e flu x p ro d u ce d b y th e p rim a ry is n o t

co m p le te ly ca p tu re d b y th e se co n d a ry.

• A n d th e iro n co re s p ro d u ce e d d y -cu rre n t

a n d h yste re sis lo sse s, w h ich co n trib u te

to th e tra n sfo rm e r te m p e ra tu re rise .

11

Ideal Transformer with

An Imperfect Core

• C o re h a vin g h yste re sis lo ss, e d d y -cu rre n t

lo ss a n d lo w p e rm e a b ility.

•

resistance Rm.

12

Cont.

iron loss and

resulting heat and a

small current If is

drawn from the line.

• Magnetizing reactance

Xm is a measure of

the permeability of

the transformer

core.

13

Cont.

• Thus if permeability

is low Xm is

relatively low. The

current Im flowing

though

Xmrepresents the

magnetizing

current needed to

create the flux Фm

in the core.

• 14

Cont.

Io(exciting current)

needed to produce

the flux Фm in an

imperfect core is

equal to the phasor

sum of If and Im.

•

15

Cont

• Rm and Xm can be

found

experimentally

by connecting

the transformer

FIG 2 : Instruments used to measure E,

I, P, and Q in a circuit. to an ac source

under no-load

condition and

measuring the

active power and

reactive power it

absorbs. 16

Cont.

• The following Where

equations apply: R

m = resistance

• representing the iron

losses, Ω

X

m = magnetizing

reactance of the

primary winding, Ω

E

1 = primary voltage, V

Pm = iron losses, W

Qm = reactive power

needed to set up the

17

Ideal Transformer with

Loose Coupling

co re b u t lo o se co u p lin g b e tw e e n its

p rim a ry a n d se co n d a ry w in d in g s

w h ich h a ve n e g lig ib le re sista n ce .

• S e q u e n ce o f sim p le o p e ra tio n se ts o ff

a tra in o f e ve n ts:

•

•

18

Cont.

permeable core at no-load.

19

Cont.

Mutual fluxes and leakage fluxes produced by a

due to the imperfect coupling between the coils.

I1 and I2 immediately flow in

winding.

I2 produces an mmf N2I2 while I1

produces mmf N1I1.

mmf N2I2 produces ac flux Ф2.

Portion of Ф2 (Фm2 ) links with

primary winding while another portion

Фf2 does not. Flux Фf2 is called

secondary leakage flux.

mmf N1I1 produces ac flux Ф1.

Portion of Ф1 (Фm1 ) links with

primary winding while another portion

Фf1 does not. Flux Фf1 is called

primary leakage flux.

20

Cont.

Transformer possesses 2 leakage fluxes and a

mutual flux

Total flux produced by I1

composed of new mutual flux

Фm1 and primary leakage flux

Фf1 .

Total flux produced by I2

composed of new mutual flux

Фm2 and primary leakage flux

Фf2 .

Combine Фm1 andФm2 into a

single mutual flux Фm.

flux Фf1 is in phase with I1

and flux Фf2 is in phase with

I2.

21

Cont.

Transformer possesses 2 leakage fluxes and a

mutual flux

Voltage Es and Ep composed of

two parts:

Ef2 induced by leakage flux

Фf2

22

Cont.

Transformer possesses 2 leakage fluxes and a

mutual flux

Ef1 induced by leakage flux

Фf1

Eg.

23

Cont.

• Ef2 is really a voltage

drop across the

secondary leakage

reactance Xf2 .

voltages due to the mutual flux and the drop across primary

leakage fluxes

leakage reactance Xf1 .

•

24

Cont.

• A lso a d d e d th e p rim a ry a n d se co n d a ry

w in d in g re sista n ce R 1 and R 2 in series

w ith th e re sp e ctive w in d in g s.

•

25

PROBLEM 2

26

Equivalent Circuit of

a Practical Transformer

practical transformer. The shaded

box T is an ideal transformer.

•

27

Cont.

• Typical value of transformer

parameters ranging from • Io always much

1kVA to 400MVA. smaller than the

• rated primary

current Inp .

• Enp In = Ens Ins = Sn,

where Sn is

transformer rated

power.

28

Simplifying the Equivalent Circuit.

• T h e co m p le te e q u iva le n t circu it o f

th e tra n sfo rm e r g ive s fa r m o re

d e ta ilth a n is n e e d e d in m o st

p ra ctica lp ro b le m s.

29

Cont.

• A t n o lo a d

– I1 and I2 = 0. Io flows in R1 and Xf1 .

– R1 and Xf1 are so small compare to Xm and Rm and I2 is zero.

So R1, R2, Xf1 and Xf2 can be neglected .

30

Cont.

• A t fu lllo a d

– Ip is at least 20 times larger than Io , Io a n d

m a g n e tizin g b ra n ch ca n b e n e g le cte d . ( a lso

a p p ly w h e n th e lo a d is o n ly 1 0 % o f ra te d

ca p a city )

31

Cont.

• Fu rth e r sim p lify b y sh iftin g th e im p e d a n ce s to

p rim a ry sid e .

•

32

Cont.

Rp = R1 + a2R2

X 2

p = Xf1 + a Xf2

•

Where

R

p = total transformer

resistance referred to the

primary side

X

p = total transformer

leakage reactance referred

to the primary side

Z

p = total impedance referred

to primary side which

produces an internal

voltage drop when 33

transformer is loaded then

Cont.

• Transformer above 500kVA possess a leakage

reactance Xp that is at least 5 times greater

than Rp. So we can neglect Rp (out of

standpoint of temperature rise and efficiency)

•

34

PROBLEM 3

35

END OF PART 5

36

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