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ELECTRICAL MACHINE

EEP 3243

Lt C d r O n g K h ye Lia t R M N
27 Jan 2010

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RECAP/ADDITION

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Ideal Transformer Under Load;
Current Ratio
• So the current ratio
under load is the
same as at no-load:
 N1I1 = N2I2
then



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Impedance Ratio
• An impedance Zx between the primary terminal
given by:


• The secondary sees an impedance Z given by:

• Zx can be expressed in another way:



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Reactance
• C a p a citive re a cta n ce  


• C o n d u ctive re a cta n ce

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Shifting Impedances from
Secondary to Primary
While shifting from secondary to primary,
these rules applied:
 

• Shifted impedance values are multiplied


by a2.
• Shifted voltage E values becomes aE.
• Shifted current I values becomes I/a.
• The secondary of the transformer is on
open-circuit and both current are zero,
therefore can remove the transformer. 6
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Shifting Impedances from
Primary to Secondary
While shifting from primary to secondary, these

rules applied:

 Shifted impedance values are divided by a2.


 Shifted voltage E values becomes E/a.
 Shifted current I values becomes aI.
 The primary of the transformer is on open-circuit
and both current are zero, therefore can remove
the ideal transformer completely.

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PROBLEM 1

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Practical Transformer
• In th e re a lw o u ld th e w in d in g s o f
tra n sfo rm e r h a ve re sista n ce a n d th e
co re s a re n o t in fin ite ly p e rm e a b le . S o
th e flu x p ro d u ce d b y th e p rim a ry is n o t
co m p le te ly ca p tu re d b y th e se co n d a ry.
• A n d th e iro n co re s p ro d u ce e d d y -cu rre n t
a n d h yste re sis lo sse s, w h ich co n trib u te
to th e tra n sfo rm e r te m p e ra tu re rise .

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Ideal Transformer with
An Imperfect Core
• C o re h a vin g h yste re sis lo ss, e d d y -cu rre n t
lo ss a n d lo w p e rm e a b ility.

FIG 1 : An imperfect core represented by a reactance Xm and a


resistance Rm.

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Cont.

• The Rm represents the


iron loss and
resulting heat and a
small current If is
drawn from the line.
• Magnetizing reactance
Xm is a measure of
the permeability of
the transformer
core.
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Cont.
• Thus if permeability
is low Xm is
relatively low. The
current Im flowing
though
Xmrepresents the
magnetizing
current needed to
create the flux Фm
in the core.
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Cont.

• The total current,


Io(exciting current)
needed to produce
the flux Фm in an
imperfect core is
equal to the phasor
sum of If and Im.


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Cont
• Rm and Xm can be
found
experimentally
by connecting
the transformer
FIG 2 : Instruments used to measure E,
I, P, and Q in a circuit. to an ac source
under no-load
condition and
measuring the
active power and
reactive power it
absorbs. 16
Cont.
• The following Where
equations apply: R
m = resistance
• representing the iron
losses, Ω
X
m = magnetizing
reactance of the
primary winding, Ω
E
1 = primary voltage, V
 Pm = iron losses, W
 Qm = reactive power
needed to set up the
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Ideal Transformer with
Loose Coupling

• A ssu m e a tra n sfo rm e r h a vin g p e rfe ct


co re b u t lo o se co u p lin g b e tw e e n its
p rim a ry a n d se co n d a ry w in d in g s
w h ich h a ve n e g lig ib le re sista n ce .
• S e q u e n ce o f sim p le o p e ra tio n se ts o ff
a tra in o f e ve n ts:

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Cont.

 Transformer with infinitely


permeable core at no-load.

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Cont.
Mutual fluxes and leakage fluxes produced by a

transformer under load. The leakage fluxes are


due to the imperfect coupling between the coils.
I1 and I2 immediately flow in
winding.
I2 produces an mmf N2I2 while I1
produces mmf N1I1.
mmf N2I2 produces ac flux Ф2.
Portion of Ф2 (Фm2 ) links with
primary winding while another portion
Фf2 does not. Flux Фf2 is called
secondary leakage flux.
mmf N1I1 produces ac flux Ф1.
Portion of Ф1 (Фm1 ) links with
primary winding while another portion
Фf1 does not. Flux Фf1 is called
primary leakage flux.

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Cont.
Transformer possesses 2 leakage fluxes and a

mutual flux
Total flux produced by I1
composed of new mutual flux
Фm1 and primary leakage flux
Фf1 .
Total flux produced by I2
composed of new mutual flux
Фm2 and primary leakage flux
Фf2 .
Combine Фm1 andФm2 into a
single mutual flux Фm.
flux Фf1 is in phase with I1
and flux Фf2 is in phase with
I2.

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Cont.
Transformer possesses 2 leakage fluxes and a

mutual flux
Voltage Es and Ep composed of
two parts:
 
Ef2 induced by leakage flux
Фf2

E2 induced by mutual flux Фm

Ef2 and E2 are not in phase.

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Cont.
Transformer possesses 2 leakage fluxes and a

mutual flux
Ef1 induced by leakage flux
Фf1
 

E1 induced by mutual flux Фm

Induced Ep = applied voltage


Eg.

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Cont.
• Ef2 is really a voltage
drop across the
secondary leakage
reactance Xf2 .

FIG 3 Separating the various induced • Ef1 is simply a voltage


voltages due to the mutual flux and the drop across primary
leakage fluxes
leakage reactance Xf1 .

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Cont.
• A lso a d d e d th e p rim a ry a n d se co n d a ry
w in d in g re sista n ce R 1 and R 2 in series
w ith th e re sp e ctive w in d in g s.

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PROBLEM 2

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Equivalent Circuit of
a Practical Transformer

• Complete equivalent circuit of a


practical transformer. The shaded
box T is an ideal transformer.

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Cont.
• Typical value of transformer
parameters ranging from • Io always much
1kVA to 400MVA. smaller than the
• rated primary
current Inp .
• Enp In = Ens Ins = Sn,
where Sn is
transformer rated
power.

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Simplifying the Equivalent Circuit.
• T h e co m p le te e q u iva le n t circu it o f
th e tra n sfo rm e r g ive s fa r m o re
d e ta ilth a n is n e e d e d in m o st
p ra ctica lp ro b le m s.

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Cont.
• A t n o lo a d
– I1 and I2 = 0. Io flows in R1 and Xf1 .
– R1 and Xf1 are so small compare to Xm and Rm and I2 is zero.
So R1, R2, Xf1 and Xf2 can be neglected .

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Cont.
• A t fu lllo a d
– Ip is at least 20 times larger than Io , Io a n d
m a g n e tizin g b ra n ch ca n b e n e g le cte d . ( a lso
a p p ly w h e n th e lo a d is o n ly 1 0 % o f ra te d
ca p a city )

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Cont.
• Fu rth e r sim p lify b y sh iftin g th e im p e d a n ce s to
p rim a ry sid e .

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Cont.
Rp = R1 + a2R2
X 2
p = Xf1 + a Xf2


Where
R
p = total transformer
resistance referred to the
primary side
X
p = total transformer
leakage reactance referred
to the primary side
Z
p = total impedance referred
to primary side which
produces an internal
voltage drop when 33
transformer is loaded then
Cont.
• Transformer above 500kVA possess a leakage
reactance Xp that is at least 5 times greater
than Rp. So we can neglect Rp (out of
standpoint of temperature rise and efficiency)

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PROBLEM 3

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END OF PART 5

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