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ELECTRICAL MACHINE

EEP 3243

Lt Cdr Ong Khye Liat RMN

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RECAP/ADDITION

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Transformer Types
• Power transformers
• Instrument transformers
• Pulse transformers
• RF transformers
• Audio transformers



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Operating Principle
• A voltage will
induce across
secondary coil
according to
Faradays laws of
electromagnetic
induction.

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Ideal Transformer
B y d e fin itio n , a n id e a ltra n sfo rm e r h a s

n o lo sse s a n d it co re is in fin ite ly


p e rm e a b le . T h e fo llo w in g p o in ts o f id e a l
tra n sfo rm e r sh o u ld b e n o te d :
– N o w in d in g re sista n ce .
– N o le a ka g e flu x .
– N o iro n lo sse s.
– Its co e fficie n t o f co u p lin g is
u n ity.

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Voltage induced in a coil
• T h e flu x a lte rn a te s sin u so id a lly a t
fre q u e n cy f, periodicallyreaching + ve
and -ve peaks Ømax .
• The alternating flux induces a sinusoidal
ac voltage in the coil, whose effective
value is given by
 E = 4.44fNØmax V

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Cont.
 E = 4.44fNØmax V
  
 where
 E = effective voltage induced

 f = frequency of the flux
 N = # of turns on the coil
 Ømax = peak value of the flux
 4.44 = a constant of

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EXAMPLE 1

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Cont.



• Flux is increasing
 with time, the rate
of change is

greater than zero
 and the voltage is

+ve.
 • Flux is decreasing
 Fig 1: A sinusoidal flux induces a with time, the rate
sinusoidal voltage. of change is less
• than zero and the
voltage is -ve. 
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Applied Voltage and Induced Voltage
• The coil has a
reactance Xm and
draws a current
Im. If the
resistance of the
coil is negligible,
the current is
Fig 2: The voltage E induced in a coil is
equal to the applied voltage Eg.
given by

 Im = Eg/Xm

 
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Cont.
• The sinusoidal current Im produces a sinusoidal
mmf (NIm), which icreates a sinusoidal flux, Ø.
• Im is called the magnetizing current and Ømax is
the peak value of this ac flux.
• The applied voltage Eg and the induced voltage
E must be identical.

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Cont.

 E = Eg= 4.44fNØmax
V

Fo r a g ive n fre q u e n cy a n d # o f tu rn s, Ømax varies in


proportion to the applied voltage Eg.


  

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EXAMPLE 2

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Cont.
• For insert an iron core
into the coil Eg, E,
Ømax will retain its
original value.
• The magnetizing
current Im is much
Fig 3 : T h e flu x in th e co il re m a in s smaller.
co n sta n t a s lo n g a s Eg is constant .
• To produce the same
flux, a smaller mmf
is needed with an
iron core than with
an air core. 14
Elementary Transformer

• If second coil close


to the first, it will
surround a portion
Øm1 of the total
flux. 
Fig 4 : V o lta g e in d u ce d in a se co n d a ry • An ac voltage E2 is
co il.
induced in the
second coil.

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Cont.
• Voltage only exists
only btw terminal 1-
2 and 3-4. No
voltage exists btw
primary and
secondary terminal (
electrically isolated).
Fig 4 : V o lta g e in d u ce d in a se co n d a ry • The flux, Ø can be
co il.
broken up into
mutual flux Øm1 and
the leakage flux Øf1 .
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Cont.
• Coupling btw the 2
coils is weak when
they are far apart
and the mutual flux
is very small
compared to the
total flux.
• Better coupling can
obtain by bringing 2
coils closer, but
even bring and
touch the 2 coils the
mutual flux still 17
Ideal Transformer at No-Load
Voltage Ratio
• This ideal
transformer has
primary and
secondary coils
respectively
posses N1 and N2
Fig 5 : T h e id e a l tra n sfo rm e r a t n o -lo a d .
turns.
• The mutual flux is
completely linked
by the primary
and secondary
coils. 18
Cont.
• According to the previous
equation, we can write:

 E1 = 4.44fN1Ømax and E2 =
4.44fN2Ømax

• The above equations can


be deduce for voltage
ratio and turn ratio, a of
an ideal transformer :

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Cont.
• Primary and secondary
voltage are induced
by the same mutual
flux, they are in phase
too.
• The magnetic circuit is
Fig 6 : Ph a so r re la tio n sh ip s a t infinitely permeable
n o -lo a d .
and so no
(infinitesimally small)
magnetizing current
is required to produce
the flux Øm. 20
Cont.

• E2 is in phase with
phasor E1, current
Im lags 90o behind
applied voltage Eg
Fig 6: Phasor relationships at
no-load.
and flux Øm also in
phase with Im. 

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EXAMPLE 3

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END OF PART 3

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Reactance
• C ircu it e le m e n t's o p p o sitio n to a n a lte rn a tin g
cu rre n t, ca u se d b y th e b u ild u p o f e le ctric o r
m a g n e tic fie ld s in th e e le m e n t d u e to th e
cu rre n t.
• R e a cta n ce is th e  im a g in a ry p a rt o f e le ctrica l
im p e d a n ce , used to compute amplitude and
p h a se ch a n g e s o f sin u so id a la lte rn a tin g
cu rre n t g o in g th ro u g h th e circu it e le m e n t.
• B o th re a cta n ce , X a n d  re sista n ce , R  a re
re q u ire d to ca lcu la te th e  im p e d a n ce , Z .


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Cont.

• If X > 0 , the reactance is said to


b e  inductive
• If X = 0, then the impedance is
purely resistive
• If X <0 , the reactance is said to
be capacitive

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Cont.
• C a p a citive re a cta n ce  


• C o n d u ctive re a cta n ce

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