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Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva is classically


defined as conjunctival hyperemia
(conjunctivitis) associated with discharge
which may be watery, mucoid, mucopurulent
or purulent.
Classification of conjunctivitis

Etiological
Clinical
Etiological Classification

 Infective Conj.
• Bacterial
• Chlamydial
• Viral
• Fungal
• Parasitic
Etiological Classification

Allergic Conj.

Irritative Conj.

Kerato Conj.

Traumatic Conj.

Unknown itiology
BACTERIAL CONJUCTIVITIS

ETIOLOGY

*PREDISPOSING FACTOR
Bacterial conj., poor hygienic condition,
hot dry climate, poor sanitation,
dirty habits
CAUSATIVE ORGANISM

Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogens
Haemophilus influenza
Cornibacterium diptheriae
Neisseria gonorrhoea etc..
MODE OF INFECTION

1. Exogenous infection

2. Local spread

3. Endogenous infections
PATHOLOGY

Pathological changes of bacterial conj


consists of:
1. Vascular response:
It is characterized by congestion and
increased permeability of
conjunctival vessels associated with
proliferation of capillaries.
Cellular Response

It is in the form of exudation of


polymorph nuclear cells and other
inflamatory cells into the substantia
propria of conjunctiva as well as in the
conjunctival sac.
CONJUNCTIVAL TISSUE
RESPONSE:
Oedematous ,sup. Epi.cells degenerate
Become loose
CONJUNCTIVAL DISCHARGE
Tears,inflammatory cells, fibrin &
bacteria. If inflam.is severe discharge
– blood stained.
Clinical Types Bacterial conj.

Acute Catarrhal or mucopurulent conj.


Acute purulent conj.
Acute membranous conj.
Acute pseudo membranous conj.
Chronic Bacterial conj.
Chronic angular conj.
Acute mucopurulent conj.

Symptoms
Discomfort / F.B.sensation
Mild photophobia
Mucopurulent discharge
Sticking
Blurred of vision
colored halos
Acute mucopurulent conj.

Signs
Conj. Congestion
Chemosis
Petechial haemorrhages
Flakes of mucopus
cilia – matted – yellow crusts.
Acute mucopurulent conj.

Duration -3-4 days


Untreated – 10-15 days – chronic
catarrhal conj.
Complications – Marginal corneal
ulcer, superficial keratitis,
blephritis,DCT.
Management

Topical antibiotics – cult. & sensitivity


Irrigation of conj. Sac- sterile warm
saline
Dark goggles –prevent photophobia
No bandage
No steroids
Anti inflammatory, analgesic drugs
Acute Purulent conj.

Adult purulent conj.

Ophthalmia neonatorum in newborn


Adult - purulent conj.

Etiology – causative organism –

gonococcus, staphylococcus aureus,

pnemococcus
Adult - purulent conj.

Clinical picture
Stage of infiltration -4-5 days
painful, tender eyeball
Bright red velvety chemosed conj.
Discharge – watery
Pre auricular lymph nodes - enlarged
Adult - purulent conj.

Stage of Blenorrhea
starts at 5th day, lasts for several days
frankly purulent , copious, thick
discharge trickling down – cheeks
tenderness is less
Adult - purulent conj.

Stage of slow healing


pain –decreased
swelling – lids – subsides
redness, thickened conj., velvety
conj.
discharge less
resolution
Adult - purulent conj.

Complications -corneal
ulcers,prforation

Iridocyclitis- rare

Systemic – arthritis,endocarditis ,
septicaemia
Management

Systemic medicine

Topical antibiotics

Irrigation

Atropine eye drop


Acute Membranous conj.

Etiology
Cornebacterium diphtheriae

Strepto coccus
Acute Membranous conj.

Stage of infiltration
scanty discharge & severe pain
lids swollen
conj. Red, covered with thick grey
yellow membrane. The membrane –
tough , firmly adherent, bleeds on
removing
Acute Membranous conj.

Stage of suppuration – pain


decreases lid becomes soft, sloughed
off membrane

Stage of cicatrisation- raw surface –


granulation., trichiasis,conj. xerosis
Acute Membranous conj.

Corneal ulceration

Trichiasis, entropion , conj. Xerosis

MANAGEMENT

Topical antibiotic eye drop

Systemic treatment