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Chapter 3:

Bipolar Junction Transistors


Transistor Construction
There are two types of transistors:
• pnp
• npn
pnp

The terminals are labeled:


• E - Emitter
• B - Base
• C - Collector

npn

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 2 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Transistor Operation
With the external sources, VEE and VCC, connected as shown:

• The emitter-base junction is forward biased


• The base-collector junction is reverse biased

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 3 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Currents in a Transistor

Emitter current is the sum of the collector and


base currents:

IE  IC  IB

The collector current is comprised of two


currents:
IC  IC  I CO
majority minority

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common-Base Configuration

The base is common to both input (emitter–base) and


output (collector–base) of the transistor.

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common-Base Amplifier

Input Characteristics

This curve shows the relationship


between of input current (IE) to input
voltage (VBE) for three output voltage
(VCB) levels.

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common-Base Amplifier

Output Characteristics
This graph demonstrates
the output current (IC) to
an output voltage (VCB) for
various levels of input
current (IE).

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Operating Regions

• Active – Operating range of the


amplifier.
• Cutoff – The amplifier is basically
off. There is voltage, but little
current.
• Saturation – The amplifier is full on.
There is current, but little voltage.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 8 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Approximations

Emitter and collector currents:

I I
C E

Base-emitter voltage:

VBE  0.7 V (for Silicon)

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Alpha (a)

Alpha (a) is the ratio of IC to IE :


IC
αdc 
IE

Ideally: a = 1
In reality: a is between 0.9 and 0.998

Alpha (a) in the AC mode:


ΔI C
αac 
ΔI E

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 10 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Transistor Amplification

Currents and Voltages: Voltage Gain:


V 200mV VL 50V
I E  Ii  i   10mA Av    250
Ri 20Ω Vi 200mV
I I
C E
I  I  10 mA
L i
V  I R  (10 ma)(5 kΩ )  50 V
L L

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common–Emitter Configuration

The emitter is common to both input


(base-emitter) and output (collector-
emitter).

The input is on the base and the


output is on the collector.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 12 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common-Emitter Characteristics

Collector Characteristics Base Characteristics

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common-Emitter Amplifier Currents
Ideal Currents

IE = IC + IB IC = a IE

Actual Currents

IC = a IE + ICBO where ICBO = minority collector current

ICBO is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in high


power transistors and in high temperature environments.

When IB = 0 A the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority


current flowing called ICEO.
I CBO
I CEO  I B 0 μA
1 α

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Beta ()
 represents the amplification factor of a transistor. ( is
sometimes referred to as hfe, a term used in transistor modeling
calculations)

In DC mode:
IC
βdc 
IB

In AC mode:
IC
 ac  VCE constant
IB

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Beta ()
Determining  from a Graph

(3.2 mA  2.2 mA)


β AC 
(30 μA  20 μA)
1 mA
 V  7.5
10 μA CE
 100

2.7 mA
β DC  VCE  7.5
25 A
 108

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Beta ()

Relationship between amplification factors  and a

β α
α β
β1 α 1

Relationship Between Currents

I C  βI B I E  (β  1)I B

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common–Collector Configuration

The input is on the


base and the output is
on the emitter.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 18 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Common–Collector Configuration

The characteristics are


similar to those of the
common-emitter
configuration, except the
vertical axis is IE.

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Operating Limits for Each Configuration

VCE is at maximum and IC is at


minimum (ICmax= ICEO) in the cutoff
region.

IC is at maximum and VCE is at


minimum (VCE max = VCEsat = VCEO) in
the saturation region.

The transistor operates in the active


region between saturation and cutoff.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 20 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Power Dissipation
Common-base:
PCmax  VCBI C

Common-emitter:

PCmax  VCEI C

Common-collector:

PCmax  VCEI E

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Transistor Specification Sheet

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Transistor Specification Sheet

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Transistor Testing
• Curve Tracer
Provides a graph of the characteristic curves.

• DMM
Some DMMs measure DC or hFE.

• Ohmmeter

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.
Transistor Terminal Identification

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