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Excretory Products And Their Elimination

Made By J.Janani
Made By
J.Janani

11-A

Excretory Products And Their Elimination Made By J.Janani 11-A

The Excretory System

The excretory system is a biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism. It is responsible for the elimination of oxygen waste products of metabolism as well as other nitrogeneous materials.

The Excretory System The excretory system is a biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous
The Excretory System The excretory system is a biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous

Human Excretory System

Human Excretory System Pair of kidneys One pair of ureters A urinary bladder A urethra
Pair of kidneys One pair of ureters A urinary bladder A urethra
Pair of kidneys
One pair of ureters
A urinary bladder
A urethra

A Pair Of Kidneys

A Pair Of Kidneys Kidneys are reddish brown, bean shaped structures situated between the levels of
Kidneys are reddish brown, bean shaped structures situated between the levels of last thoracic and third
Kidneys are reddish
brown, bean shaped
structures situated
between the levels of
last thoracic and third
lumbar vertebra close
to the dorsal inner wall
of the abdominal
cavity.

The Excretory System

Towards the centre of the inner concave surface of the kidney is a notch called hilum through which ureter, blood vessels and nerves enter.Inner to the hilum is a broad funnel shaped space called the renal pelvis with projections called calyces.Inside the kidney, there are two zones, an outer cortex and an inner medulla.The cortex extends in between medullary pyramids as renal columns called ‘columns of bertini’.

The Excretory System Towards the centre of the inner concave surface of the kidney is a
The Excretory System Towards the centre of the inner concave surface of the kidney is a

Longitudinal Section Of Kidney

Longitudinal Section Of Kidney
Longitudinal Section Of Kidney

The Excretory System

Each kidney has nearly one million complex tubular structures called ‘nephrons’,which are the functional units.Each nephron has two parts

1.glomerulus 2.renal tubule.
1.glomerulus
2.renal tubule.

Glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries formed by the afferent arteriole.The renal tubule begins with a double walled cup-like structure called ‘Bowman’s capsule’,which encloses the glomerulus.

The Excretory System Each kidney has nearly one million complex tubular structures called ‘ nephrons ’,which

Nephron

Nephron
Nephron

The Excretory System

Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. Its chief function is to

1.regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing
1.regulate the concentration of water and
soluble substances like sodium salts by
filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is
needed and excreting the rest as urine.
2. A nephron eliminates wastes from the

body,

  • 3. controls levels of electrolytes and

The Excretory System Nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. Its chief

metabolites

  • 4. regulates blood pH.

Malpighian Body

Malpighian Body The renal tubule begins with a double walled cup- like structure called bowman’s capsule,
The renal tubule begins with a double walled cup- like structure called bowman’s capsule, which encloses
The renal tubule begins
with a double walled cup-
like structure called
bowman’s capsule, which
encloses the
glomerulus.Glomerulus
along with bowman’s
capsule is,called the
malpighian body.

Henle’s loop

In the kidney, the loop of Henle is the portion of the nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule. The loop has a hairpin bend in the renal medulla. The main function of this structure is to create a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney. By means of a countercurrent multiplier system, which utilizes sodium pumps, it creates an area of high sodium concentration deep in the medulla, near the collecting duct. Water present in the filtrate in the collecting duct flows through aquaporin channels out of the collecting duct, moving passively down its concentration gradient. This process reabsorbs water and creates a concentrated urine for excretion.

Henle’s loop In the kidney, the loop of Henle is the portion of the nephron that
Henle’s loop In the kidney, the loop of Henle is the portion of the nephron that

TYPES OF NEPHRON

TYPES OF NEPHRON N e p h r o n c o r t i c
N e p h r o n c o r t i c a l n
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URINE FORMATION

URINE FORMATION Urine formation involves three main processes namely- Glomerular Filtration Reabsorption Secretion
Urine formation involves three main processes namely- Glomerular Filtration Reabsorption Secretion
Urine formation involves three main processes namely-
Glomerular Filtration
Reabsorption
Secretion

Urine Formation

Urine Formation Urine formation involves filtration of blood, which is carried out by glomerulus and is

Urine formation involves filtration of blood, which is carried out by glomerulus and is called glomerular filtration.The glomerular capillary blood pressure causes filtration of blood through 3 layers-

1. The endothelium of glomerular blood vessels 2. The epithelium of Bowman’s capsule 3. Basement membrane
1.
The endothelium of glomerular blood vessels
2.
The epithelium of Bowman’s capsule
3.
Basement membrane between these two layers

Blood is filtered so finely so finely through membranes, that almost all the constituents of plasma except the proteins pass onto the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule.Therefore, it is considered as a process of ultra filtration. In physiology, reabsorption or tubular reabsorption is the flow of glomerular filtrate from the proximal tubule of the nephron into the peritubular capillaries. This happens as a result of sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+ ATPase in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells. Thus, the glomerular filtrate becomes more concentrated, which is one of the steps in forming urine.

Blood is filtered so finely so finely through membranes, that almost all the constituents of plasma
Blood is filtered so finely so finely through membranes, that almost all the constituents of plasma

Reabsorption and Secretion of nephron

Reabsorption and Secretion of nephron
Reabsorption and Secretion of nephron

Nephron and vasa recta

Nephron and vasa recta
Nephron and vasa recta

Proximal Convoluted Tubule(PCT)

Proximal Convoluted Tubule(PCT) The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron leading from Bowman's
The proximal tubule is the
portion of the duct system of the
nephron leading from Bowman's
capsule to the loop of Henle.
The proximal tubule regulates the
pH of the filtrate by exchanging
hydrogen ions in the interstitium
for bicarbonate ions in the filtrate;
furthermore, it is responsible for
secreting organic acids, such as
creatinine and other bases, into the
filtrate.