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PRESENTATION OF PRINCIPEL

OF MANAGEMANT

“LEADERSHIP”

Prepared by:-
M. Waqas Qadir
LEADERSHIP
LEADER
One who obtains followers and
Influences them in setting
and achieving objectives.

POWER AUTHORITY
Measure of a person’s potential to
Get others to do what he wants Right to issue directives and
Them to do as well as to avoid Expend resources related to
Being forced by others to do what Power but narrower in scope.
He does not want to do.
SOURCE OF POWER
ORGANIZATIONAL BASIS
SOURCES

capacity to provide rewards


• Reward Power
capacity to punish
• Coercive Power
• Legitimate Power Person’s position in the organizational
hierarchy

PERSONAL SOURCES BASIS

The skill, experience, and knowledge on


• EXPORT POWER individual possesses
The personal characteristics
• REFERENT POWER
Of an individual that make other people
want to associate with the person
LEADER ATTITUDE

ATTITUDE

HOW A PERSON
BEHAVES AS A SELF-FULFILLING
LEADER PROPHECY
PERSON BEHAVES AS A LEADER
“The idea that a leader’s attitude
toward human nature has a large
influence on how that person behaves
as a leader”.

- Average human dislike work and


avoid.
- Average human prefers to be direct,
wishes to avoid responsibility.
SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY

“The relationship between a leader’s


expectations and the resulting
performance of employees has
received much attention”.
- Expectations are high, productivity is
likely to be high.
- Expectations are low, productivity is
likely to be poor.
LEADERSHIP
“Ability to influence people to willingly
follow one’s guidance or adhere to
one’s decisions”.

 Setting and achieving objectives.


 Use power in influencing group
behavior.
LEADERSHIP AND
MANAGEMNET

-Creates a visions
- PLANNING - develop a long
- ORGANIZING term interest
- STAFFING
-Motivates
- LEADING
- CONTROLLING employees
- implement the
strategy

MANAGEMENT PROCESS
LEADERSHIP
FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSIFYING
LEADERSHIP STUDIES
 Leadership is to be studied as a set of
traits or as a set of behaviors.

- Trait refers to the characteristics the


leader possesses.
- Behaviors refer to what the leader
does.
FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSIFYING
LEADERSHIP STUDIES
 Dimension, approach, refers to
whether leadership is studied from a
universal or contingent approach.
- Universal approach assumes there is
one best way to lead regardless of
the circumstances.
- The contingent approach assumes the
best approach to leadership is
contingent on the situation.
FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSIFYING
LEADERSHIP STUDIES
APPROACH
UNIVERSAL CONTINGENT

TRAITS TRAITS FIEDLER’S CONTIGENCY


THEORY THEORY

FOCUS

BEHAVIORS LEADERSHIP STYLES PATH-GOAL THEORY


OHIO STATE STUDIES LIFE-CYCLE THEORY
MICHIGON STUDIES
TRAIT THEORY
 Stressed what the leader was like
rather than what the leader did.

Differentiate leader

Social Trait Personality Trait


-Tact -Originality
-Sympathy -Knowledge
-patience -enthusiasm
LEADERSHIP STYLES
 Autocratic Leader
Makes most decisions for the group.
 Laissez-Faire Leader
Allows people with in the group to
make all decisions.
 Democratic Leader
Guides and encourages the group to
make decisions.
OHIO STATE STUDIES
 A series of studies on leadership to
discover the most important
behaviors of successful leaders.

- What a successful leader does


regardless of the type of group
being led, whether a religious group,
a business organization.
MICHIGAN STUDIES

 Michigan conducted studies to


discover principles contributing both
to the productivity of a group and to
the satisfaction derived by group
members.
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY
THEORY

“Focuses on the style of leadership


that is most effective in particular
situations”.
- A scale used to measure a person
task-or relationship-oriented leader or
not.
- Scale name LEAST-PREFERRED CO-
WORKER scale (LPC).
LEAST-PREFERRED CO-WORKER
SCALE (LPC).
 A high LPC leader generally scores the
other person as positive.
- High LPC leaders tend to have close and
positive relationships.

 low LPC leader scores them as negative.


- Low LPC leaders put the task first and will
turn to relationships only when they are
satisfied with how the work is going.
FACTORS ARE IDENTIFIED THE
LEADER
Three factors are then identified about the leader.
 Leader-Member Relations:
The extent to which the leader has the support and
loyalties of followers and relations with them are friendly
and cooperative.
 Task structure:
The extent to which tasks are standardized,
documented and controlled.
 Leader's Position-power:
The extent to which the leader has authority to assess
follower performance and give reward or punishment.
LEAST-PREFERRED CO-WORKER
SCALE (LPC).

 The best LPC approach depends on a


combination of there three.
Generally, a high LPC approach is best
when leader-member relations are
poor, except when the task is
unstructured and the leader is weak, in
which a low LPC style is better.
(LPC)
No Leader-Member Task Leader's Most
Relations structure Position- Effective
power leader
1 Good Structured Strong Low LPC
2 Good Structured Weak Low LPC
3 Good Unstructured Strong Low LPC
4 Good Unstructured Weak High LPC
5 Poor Structured Strong High LPC
6 Poor Structured Weak High LPC
7 Poor Unstructured Strong High LPC
8 Poor Unstructured Weak Low LPC
PATH-GOAL THEROY OF
LEADERSHIP
 Attempts to define the relationships
between a leader’s behavior and the
subordinates performance and work
activities.

- Leader behavior has four basic types.


- Role classification
- Supportive
- Participative
- Autocratic
CLASSIFICATION

 Subordinates know what is expected


of them, give guidance as to what
should be done and how.
- Schedules and coordinates work
among subordinates
- Maintains definite standards of
performance.
SUPPORTIVE

 Supportive leadership involves a


friendly, approachable leader who
attempts to make the work
environment more pleasant for
subordinates.
PARTICIPATIVE

 Participative leadership entails


consulting with subordinates and
asking for their suggestions in the
decision-making process.
AUTOCRATIC

 Autocratic leadership comes from a


leader who gives orders that
subordinates are not to question.
LIFE-CYCLE THEORY
 A theory suggesting that the type of
leadership (or coaching style)
appropriate for a given situation
depends on the maturity of the
athlete being coached. The need for
coaching behavior consistent with
initiating structure.
Example
 Tends to decrease with age. The need
for coaching styles consistent
with consideration tends to be low for
very mature and immature athletes,
and high for those with moderate
levels of maturity.
Normative Model

 Decision quality is the selection of the best


alternative, and is particularly important
when there are many alternatives. It is also
important when there are serious
implications for selecting (or failing to
select) the best alternative.
- Leaders focus more on decision acceptance
when decision quality is more important.
Vroom and Yetton's Normative
Model

 Vroom and Yetton defined five


different decision procedures

- Two are autocratic (A1 and A2).


- Two are consultative (C1 and C2).
- one is Group based (G2).
Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model

 A1: Leader takes known information and then


decides alone.
 A2: Leader gets information from followers, and
then decides alone.
 C1: Leader shares problem with followers
individually, listens to ideas and then decides
alone.
 C2: Leader shares problems with followers as a
group, listens to ideas and then decides alone.
 G2: Leader shares problems with followers as a
group and then seeks and accepts consensus
agreement.
“THANKS”