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Health Promotion

for
Middle Adulthood &
Late Adulthood

PCU-MJCN
Class 2011
Physical
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Adolescent

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Spiritual
Physical
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Young Adult

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Spiritual
Physical
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Middle Adult
Elderly

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Spiritual
DEMOGRAPHICS
 40 y/o – 60 y/o – Middle Adulthood
 60 years and above – Late
adulthood
 Age & Sex distribution
 Life expectancy
 Leading causes of Mortality and
Morbidity
Theories of Aging

Biological
 Genetic Theory
 Wear and Tear Theory
 Neuriendocrine Theory
 Free Radical Theory
 Cross-Linkage Theory
Theories of Aging
 Sociological
 Disengagement Theory
 Activity
Theory
 Continuity Theory

 Psychological
 Human Needs
 Evolving
 Evolutionary Theory
Body Changes
Middle Adult Older Adult
Decrease in bone Decrease muscle
and muscle mass mass
Vertebral Cartilage Bone
hardens demineralization
Metatarsal Spread Decrease rate of
autonomic reflexes
Neurological
Middle Adult Older Adult
Visual Changes
Presbyopia Decreased visual acuity
Cataract development Reduced adaptation to
darkness and sensitivity to
glare.
Increased dryness.

Auditory Changes
Presbycusis Significant hearing loss
Decreased ability to respond
to multiple stimuli.
Insomnia
Cardiovascular/hematologic
Middle Adult Older Adult
Cholesterol and low LDL Thickening of the wall of the
increases left ventricle. Decreased
cardiac otput.

Blood Pressure increases

Varicosity development
Respiratory
Middle Adult Older Adult

Less elasticity of Reduced overall


lung tissue but no efficiency of
loss of functioning ventilatory
unless smoker, exchange.
respiratory illness.
Integumentary
Loss of elasticity causing Decreased elasticity,
sagging and wrinkling increased wrinkles and
thinning
Vitiligo and age spots Spotty pigmentation from
develop sun exposure
Callus and corn formation Dry and scaly

Hair graying and hair loss Hair loss, graying of hair


Gastrointestinal
Periodontal disease, tartar Decreased salivary
build-up common secreations, decreased
sense of taste, absence of
teeth,
Slowed GI motility, reduced Slowed GI motility
HCl acid and pepsin
production
Hemorrhoid formation

Development of lactose
intolerance
Urinary
Gradual decline of Reduced renal mass
glomerular filtration rate

Decreased bladder tone Decreased renal blood flow


and functioning

Decreased sphincter tone,


especially in females
Prostatic enlargement
Endocrine
Reduced thyroxine due to
decreased metabolic rate

Reduced pancreatic
secretion of insulin
Reproductive
Females
Diminished ovarian function Decreased vaginal wall
leading to menopause elasticity and vaginal wall
Increased risk of breast & thinning.
other reproductive cancers Reduced lubrication

Males Erectile dysfunction


Diminished size and firmness
of testes.
Reduced testosterone
production
Decrease erectile function and
sex drive
Psychological

Lack of mental exercise tends


to be correlated with
declines in memory and cognitive skills,
but major deficits are not found
Until after age 60 to 65.
Cognitive and Memory Function of
Middle Adult
 The subjective experience of forgetfulness
increases with age.
 Semantic memory
 Episodic memory
 Practiced and unpracticed skills
 New Learning
 Schematic processing
Cognitive Changes of the Elderly
 Short-Term Memory Function
 Strategy Learning – learning process
takes longer but given time, their
performance is similar with younger
ones.
 Everyday memory

Older adults take longer to register some


new piece of information, encode it, and
retrieve it.
Mental Health of Elderly
 Dementia – a grop of neurological disorders
involving problems with memory and thinking
that affect an individual’s emotional, social,
and physical functioning
Alzheimer’s Disease
 Depression
Psychosocial Factors for Middle Adult
 Family Relationships
 Spouses, Children, Aging parents, Extended
Family
 Career
 Career changes, retraining/education,
responsibility for others
 Hobbies and use of leisure time
 Values clarification
 Facing one’s mortality
 Midlife crisis
 Planning for retirement
Psychosocial Development
 Generativity VS  Ego Integrity VS
Stagnation Despair

Generativity – a sense that  Ego Integrity – the


one is making a feeling that one’s life
valuable contibution to has been worthwhile
society by bringing up
children or mentoring
younger people in some
way.
Sociological Domain of the Middle
Adult
 Mid-Life Crisis
Accepting one’s own motality
Recognizing new physical limitations and health risks
Adapting to major changes in most roles
 Role Transitions (Stages of the family life cycle)
Role Conflict
Role Strain
Sociological Domain of the Middle
Adult
 Changes in relationships
Partnership
Children and Parents
Emptying the nest
Grandparenting
Caring for aging parents
Friends
Sociological Domain of the Elderly
 Social Relationships
Social roles
Living arrangements
Partnerships
Family relationships
Friendships
Mid-Life Career Issues
 Work satisfaction is at its peak
 Quality of work performance remains high

Work Satisfaction
Job Performance
Unemployment and Career Transitions
Preparing for retirement
Career issues in Elderly
 Timing of retirement
 Reasons for retirement
Age
Health
Family considerations
Financial support
Work Characteristics
Sex differences
Career issues in Elderly
 Effects of  Choosing not to
retirement retire
Income Continuing in a life-
long occupation
Poverty
Learning New Job
Health Attitude and skills
Emotions Workplace
Mobility functioning