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Organization Development & Change

CHAPTER NINETEEN:
MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY
AND WELLNESS

Thomas G. Cummings
Christopher G. Worley

By: Sobia Siddique


1421131

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

To examine human resources


management interventions that
address increasing workforce diversity
and employee wellness.
To understand how OD efforts can
enhance traditional human resource
approaches to these issues.

WORKFORCE DIVERSITY

Workforce

diversity
is
a
workforce consisting of a
broad mix of workers from
different racial and ethnic
background of different ages
and genders, and of different
domestic
and
national
cultures.

DIMENSIONS OF DIVERSITY

Primary
Dimensio
ns Inborn
difference Have an
impact
throughout
ones life

Marital
Status

Parenta
l Status

Secondary
Dimension
s
Education
Primary
Dimension
s
Age

Religious
Beliefs

Ethnicit
Military
y
PersonSexual
Experienc
Physica
Orientatio
e
l Ability
n
Race

Gender

Work
Backgroun
d

Geographi
c Location
Income

Secondary
Dimension
s Acquired or
changed
throughout
ones lifetime
Have less
impact still
impact self
definition

MANAGING WORK FORCE DIVERSITY

Managing workforce diversity is defined as "planning


and

implementing

organizational

systems

and

practices to manage people so that the potential


advantages of diversity are maximized while its
potential disadvantages are minimized,"

Managing diversity focuses on maximizing the ability


of all employees to contribute to organizational goals.

Create & maintain a positive work environment.

A Framework for Managing


Diversity
External Pressures
Managements
Perspectives &
Priorities

Strategic
Responses

Implementation

Internal Pressures

STRATEGIC RESPONSES FOR MANAGING DIVERSITY


AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION

Strategic responses for managing diversity


Proactive
to
Reactive

Episodic approach
Low Pressure

Systemic approach
High Pressure

Deny an assignment to
an employee because a
client might object to the
employees nationality,
race, gender, age, etc.

Choose geographic
locations for the business
which avoid diversity /
where the local workforce
does not contain
protected classes

Pilot an employee
network conference that
engages employees and
their managers in
reciprocal learning
activities

Different business units


continually share
information about their
diversity successes and
failures, then adapt and
integrate them into their
businesses
Source : Dass & Parker
(1999)

AGE DIVERSITY

Trends
Median age up
Distribution of ages changing

Implications & Needs


Health care
Mobility

Interventions
Wellness programs
Work design
Career development and planning
Reward systems
18-8

GENDER DIVERSITY

Trends
Percentage of women in work force
increasing
Dual-income families increasing
Implications & Needs
Child care
Maternity/paternity leaves
Interventions
Work design
Fringe benefit rewards

18-9

DISABILITY DIVERSITY

Trends
The number of people with disabilities
entering the work force is increasing
Implications & Needs
Job skills and challenge
Physical space design
Respect and dignity
Interventions
Work design
Performance management
Career planning and development

18-10

CULTURE AND VALUES


DIVERSITY

Trends
Rising proportion of immigrant and
minority-group workers

Implications & Needs


Flexible organizational policies
Autonomy
Affirmation and respect
Interventions
Career planning and development
Employee involvement
Reward systems

18-11

RACE / ETHNICITY DIVERSITY

Trends
Minorities represent large segments of
workforce and a small segment of top
management/senior executives
Qualifications and experience of minority
employees is often overlooked
Implications & Needs
Discrimination
Interventions
Equal employment opportunities
Education and training

18-12

EMPLOYEE STRESS & WELLNESS INTERVENTION

Stress : refers to the reaction of people to their


environment. It can be positive or negative.
Wellness: the various life/non work satisfaction
enjoyed by individuals, work /job related satisfaction
and general health.
Management concern for stress management is
growing in organization.

STRESS IMPACTS
Stress coping Skills

Well being

Well being

Overall Employee Health Insurance Costs


Productivity Levels
Absenteeism
Morale
Engagement
Focus

INTERVENTION

Diagnosis stress and being aware of its causes.

Alleviating and coping with stress to improve


wellness.

DIAGNOSING METHODS

Charting stressors (figure)

Identify source of stress


Measure individual difference
Measure stress consequences

Health profiling

A Model of Diagnosis &


Intervention Consequen

Workplace
Stressors

Stress
How the

Physical Environment
Individual: role conflict and
ambiguity, lack of control
Group: poor peer,
subordinate or boss,
relationships

individual
perceives
the
occupational
stressors

Organizational: poor
design,
HR policies,
politics
Individual
Differences

Cognitive/Affectiv
e:

Biologic/Demograp
hic:

Type A or B, social
support, negative
affectivity

Age, gender,
occupation, race

ces
Subjective:
anxiety, apathy
Behavioral:
alcoholism, drug
and accident
abuse
Cognitive: poor
focus, burnout
Physiological:
high blood
pressure and
pulse
Organizational:

ALLEVIATING AND COPING WITH STRESS TO


IMPROVE WELLNESS

Role clarification
Supportive relationship
Work leaves
Health facilities
Employee assistance program