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Biosynthesis, regulation, role and disorders

Noureen abdelhalim
Nada Adel
Rana Elmonayri

What is Serotonin !
-Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT)
-Discovered in Rome by Vittorio
Erspamer in 1935
-Derived from Tryptophan amino
acid ,Its a monoamine

Biosynthesis of serotonin

Key enzyme 5 hydroxytryptophan


By MAO-A enzyme and ALDH2 enzyme

Role of serotonin in
both invertebrates
and vertebrates


In insects: it regulate heart beat,regulate

growth and memory

In parasites and worms: it regulate


2-Role of serotonin in vertebrates:

1-regulation of adrenocorticotropin
(ACTH),Prolactin and growth
hormone secretion

2-Serotonin is a mood regulator :

Because of activation of 5HT1A

3-In Brain:
Serotonin have several important functions
including :
Sleep, appetite, feeding, and body weight

4-serotonin is the most implicated in

treatment of various disorders ,including
disorders and nausea

The linkage of serotonin to depression:

In case of depression ,the value of serotonin is

decreased in brain
So anti depressant work to
Increase serotonin level
By blocking serotonin reuptake

Symptoms and Causes of

Serotonin Deficiency:


Behavioral Causes:
Lack of sufficient sleep
Not managing your stress levels
Lack of exercise/physical activity

b) Environmental Causes:
) Insufficient exposure to sunlight
) Exposure to toxic chemicals found in plastics such as bisphenol-A (BPA)
) Consuming pesticide-laden meat and produce
) Exposure to pesticides without sufficient protective gear

Symptoms and Causes of

Serotonin Deficiency:

Dietary Causes:
Insufficient consumption of high-protein non-processed food.
Consuming too much caffeine and alcohol.
Food allergies.
Multiple vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
Omega-3 deficiency.
Physiological Causes:
Insulin resistance.
Progesterone deficiency.
Chronic infections.
Glutathione deficiency.
Human growth hormone deficiency.
Insufficient blood flow in the brain.
Inborn abnormalities in serotonin receptors.

Symptoms and Causes of

Serotonin Deficiency:

Anxiety in typically low stress situations

Impatience without explanation
Fatigue when you should feel rested and energized
Cognitive impairment (inability to focus, poor memory, lack of mental
Negative thoughts with no apparent cause
Mood swings
Strong sugar cravings
Indifference to situations you typically would care deeply about
Excessive worrying
Inability to fall and stay asleep
Moderate to overwhelming sadness
Feeling worse and agitated during bad/dark weather

How to Increase Serotonin Levels?

How to Increase Serotonin Levels?

Here are a few tips on how to increase serotonin levels

without resorting to prescription medication.


Exercise has three key properties that help increase

serotonin levels.
It reduces stress, which in turn means you deplete less
It actually increases the amount of serotonin released in
your system. Scientists are unsure why this is the case, but
the effects are well documented.
It helps you sleep better which is when amino acids are
converted into Serotonin stores within the central nervous

How to Increase Serotonin Levels?


The foods below all have varying amounts of tryptophan, an essential amino acid that is
converted to 5-htp and then used by the brain to produce serotonin.

Foods high in l-tryptophan (a precursor to serotonin)

such as turkey or duck, dairy products such as milk and cheese, peanuts,
legumes, chickpeas, tree nuts (almonds, pistachio, pine nuts, pecan, Brazil
nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, walnuts, macadamia nuts), brown rice, whole
grains, spinach,avocado, blue-green algae, potatoes, radish, beets, fennel,
bananas, figs, pineapple, and soy products such as soy milk, tofu, tempeh,
natto, and miso.
Foods with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids.
Flax seeds/oil, hem seeds/oil, chia seeds, walnuts, and fatty fish such
mackerel and sardines.
Foods that contain glutathione:
garlic, walnuts, carrots, potatoes, squash, okra, asparagus, broccoli,
spinach, purslane, tomatoes, apples, avocado, and grapefruit.

How to Increase Serotonin Levels?

Iron rich food:

organic, grass-fed beef, spinach, bok choi, collards, swiss chard, kale,
lettuce, broccoli, nuts, seeds, sprouts, and dried fruits.
Magnesium rich food:
Leafy greens, cacao, seaweed, bananas, orange, tree nuts, peanuts,
whole grains, corn, cheese, eggs, milk, and white fish
Food sources of folate:
such as wheat germ, black-eyed peas, peanuts, tree nuts, bananas,
orange, kiwi, strawberries, avocado, cantaloupe, bananas, blackberries,
tomatoes, dark green vegetables, asparagus, green bell pepper, carrots,
and liver.
Foods rich in vitamin C :
such as dark green vegetables (leafy and cruciferous), cauliflower,
cabbage, sweet peppers, potatoes, black currants, guava, strawberries,
cherries, mango, berries, parsley, raw cacao, rosehips, nettle, and citrus
fruits such as lemon, orange, and grapefruit.
Foods that have sufficient levels of vitamin B6:
Wheat germ, bananas, watermelon, avocado, Brussels sprouts, carrots,
potatoes, whole grains, beans, green leafy vegetables, chicken, and fish.

One of the most important
Main Precursor : Tryptophan

Its important not for only humans and

animals but also for Insects
many types of food are involved to
maintain our serotonin level

Less Carbs , more

antidepressants as
antidepressants (TCAs)
Monoamine oxidase
inhibitors (MAOIs)
Selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors
Serotonin and
norepinephrine reuptake
inhibitors (SNRIs)