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Topic 4

~Human genetics~

Types of human inheritance

Prepared by:
Ilyanie Hj. Yaacob
Biology

Types of human inheritance


1) Dominant-recessive inheritance
2) Incomplete dominance
3) Codominance
4) Multiple alleles inheritance
5) Sex determination
6) Sex linked inheritance
7) Polygene inheritance

1) Dominant-recessive inheritance
Interaction of dominant and recessive alleles.
The dominant alleles will expressed their effect no matter the
individual is homozygous or heterozygous.
The recessive alleles will expressed their effect only if
dominant allele is absent and the individual is homozygous
recessive.

1) Dominant-recessive inheritance
No.

Traits

Dominant vs recessive

Cleft in chin

No cleft dominant, cleft recessive

Eyebrow size

Broad dominant, slender recessive

Dimples

Dimples dominant, no dimples


recessive

Earlobes

Free lobe dominant, attached


recessive

Interlaced fingers

Left thumb over right dominant, right


over left recessive

2) Incomplete dominance
Also

known

as

partial

dominance.
A blending of traits.
A condition when neither
allele is dominant over the
other.
It

is

recognized

by

the

heterozygote expressing an
intermediate
relative

to

phenotype.

phenotype
the

parental

3) Codominance
A condition when two alleles of a
locus

are

expressed

in

heterozygote, the contributions of


both alleles (genes) are clearly
visible and do not overpower each
other in the phenotype.
E.g. 1. breeding of a white & a red
cow produce a roan (a mix of red
and white) calf.

3) Codominance
E.g. 2.: ABO blood typing.
Blood types A and B are codominant alleles which are
expressed even if only one is present.

Genotypes
IA IA
IA I O
IB IB
IB I O
IA I B
IOIO

Phenotypes
Antigen on
ABO blood
surface
type
A
Type A
A
B
Type B
B
AB
Type AB
None
Type O

4) Multiple alleles inheritance


Genes may exist in more than two alleles.
However, only two alleles may appear in an individual.
E.g. blood typing:
- three different alleles = IA, IB, IO.

5) Sex determination
A biological system that determines the development of
sexual characteristics in an organism.
Males and females have different alleles or even different
genes that specify their sexual morphology.
Men normally have an X and a Y combination of sex
chromosomes
Women have two X's.

6) Sex-linked inheritance
The genes are located on one of the sex chromosomes (X or
Y) but not the other.
Typically the X chromosome is longer, it bears a lot of genes
not found on the Y chromosome - thus most sex-linked genes
are X-linked genes.
Men:
- Only men inherit Y chromosomes, they are the only ones to
inherit Y-linked traits.
- Men only have one X chromosome - genes on that
chromosome are normally expressed in the male phenotype
even if they are recessive since there are no corresponding

6) Sex-linked inheritance
Women:
- In women, a recessive allele on one X chromosome is often
masked in their phenotype by a dominant normal allele on the
other.

The "a" recessive


allele
will be expressed in
his
phenotype

The "a" recessive


allele
will not be
expressed in
her phenotype

7) Polygene inheritance
The phenotypes are determined by the collective effect of
several genes which interact with one another.
Occurs when one characteristic is controlled by two or more
than two genes (usually by many different genes) at different
loci on different chromosomes.
Often gives rise to continuous variation produce bellshaped curve.

7) Polygene inheritance
E.g.: Skin color - governed by three sets of genes.
Each parent contributes three alleles and each allele carries
its own weight.

7) Polygene inheritance