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Abdul Muniem Al Hawwa
American University of Sharjah
Master of Translation & Interpretation

Introduction The aim of this study is to review the theory of equivalence as interpreted by some of the most innovative theorists in this field (Jakobson 1959. and Baker ) . Koller 1979. Nida 1964.

• Equivalent translation aims at reaching the same or similar effect on the target text receiver. It is said to occur at word. grammatical. textual and pragmatic levels. .What is Equivalence? • Equivalence is one of the procedures used in translation. equivalence must be understood as sameness.

One also discovers that some languages use only one word there where other languages use two or three words in order to refer to the same concept.Types of Equivalence • By examining some examples drawn from certain languages one discovers that total meaning and equivalence in translation do not exist. . Why is it so? It is for the simple reason. that meaning especially belongs to language and culture.

Many equivalence typologies have been advanced by the previously mentioned theorists. in this paper. and Baker ) .• Because the notion of equivalence has taken much attention of translation theorists. we’ll focus on those theorists (Jakobson 1959. their studies have led to the emergence of a great excess of different types of translation equivalence. Nida 1964. Koller 1979.

as he suggests. He outlines that "there is no full equivalence between code-units. He adds that "the translator records and transmits a message received from another source." . Thus.Jakobson’s typology Roman Jacobson 1959 tackles the problem of equivalence in meaning between words in different languages. translation involves two equivalent messages in two different languages." This. leads to the substitution of oneword messages in one language by paraphrased messages in some other language.

intersemiotic translation .translation within the same language. -interlingual translation .translation from one language to another .Jacobson’s continued Jakobson makes a very important distinction between three types of written translation: -intralingual translation . . for example music or image. which can involve rewording or paraphrase.translation of the verbal sign by a non-verbal sign.

Nida’s typology Nida argued that there are two different types of equivalence. . Formal and Dynamic equivalence.focuses attention on the message itself. in both form and content. It aims to allow the reader to understand as much of the SL context as possible. • Formal equivalence . • Formal equivalence tends to emphasize fidelity to the lexical details and grammatical structure of the original language.

. .Necessity is the mother of invention.A drowning man clutches at a straw .Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding formal equivalents in Arabic .The end justifies the means.

Nida’s continued • Dynamic equivalence . based on the principle of equivalent effect. •  Dynamic equivalence is the “quality of a translation in which the message of the original text has been so transported into the receptor language that the response of the receptor is essentially like that of the original receptors” . that the relationship between receiver and message should aim at being the same as that between the original receivers and the SL message.e.

Translate the following English proverbs into corresponding Arabic functional equivalents. .Beggars must not be choosers. which also feature a good degree of formal equivalence -Like father like son -A fault confessed is half redressed. .

origin.According to Koller..) Here we are talking about the mind of the reader or user.‫الستعارة‬ . ‫ الكناية‬.. • Koller distinguishes five types of equivalences so as to try to answer this question: what exactly has to be equivalent? • Denotative equivalence (referential): is referred to the equivalence of the extra linguistic content of a text‫المعاني القاموسية‬ • Connotative equivalence: related to the lexicon (usage.

• Textual equivalence: deals with flow of information. The ST & TT words having similar orthographic or phonological features. ST & TT words having the same effect on the respective reader. • Pragmatic equivalence: It is also called 'communicative equivalence‘.Koller’s continued • Text-normative equivalence: is related to the different types of texts and communicative situations. cohesion .

discusses the text level (word texts are used in communicative situations that involves variables such as writers. Textual equivalence. Grammatical equivalence. . and cultural context. with grammatical categories 4.the meaning of single words and expressions 2. Equivalence above word level.) 5. Equivalence at word level. Pragmatic equivalence.Baker’s equivalence typology 1.explores combinations of words and phrases (stretches of language) 3. etc. cohesion.

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