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Lecturer: Pamela Saerang, SPd.

Lecturer: Pamela Saerang, SPd.

W R I T I N G CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY TABLE OF CONTENTS

W R I T I N G

CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A-Writing Product

Letter in response to a web page.

B-Idea Development/Organizing Skills

  • - Free writing to generate ideas.

  • - Using a graphic organizer to connect arguments and reasons.

  • - Analyzing the organization of a letter.

C-Revising and Editing

  • - Revising for content: faulty reasoning.

  • - Editing for form: hyphenation errors.

D-Critical Thinking

  • - Identifying and avoiding faulty reasoning

  • - Supporting an opinion with examples and predictions.

E-Grammar

E-Grammar W R I T I N G CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY TABLE OF

W R I T I N G

CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • - Expressing obligation with must, have to and should

F-Vocabulary Building

  • - Using context to define words.

  • - Identifying parts of speech.

G-Focus on Testing

  • - TOEFL IBT – Stating a specific point of view.

W R I T I N G CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY IN THIS CHAPTER

W R I T I N G

CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY

IN THIS CHAPTER

Genre Focus:

Writing Product:

Argument A letter in response to a web page article

Writing Process: Practice free writing

Read and discuss a web page article Use a graphic organizer to connect opinions and reasons Express obligations and give advice with must, have to and should Support an opinion with examples and predictions Identify and avoid faulty reasoning Identify and correct hyphenation errors

W R I T I N G CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY CONNECTING TO TOPIC

W R I T I N G

CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY

CONNECTING TO TOPIC

Do you think money is equally important to people all over the world?

How important is money to you?

How does money impact your life?

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W R I T I N G

CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY

PART 1 – BEFORE YOU WRITE

EXPLORING IDEAS

DISCUSSING ATTITUDES TOWARD MONEY

“Time is Money” – Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

“Money speaks sense in a language all nations understand” – Aphra Behn (1640-

1689)

“Capital as such is not evil; it is its wrong use that is evil.

Capital

in some form or

other will always be needed” – Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)

“Money buys everything except love, personality, freedom, immortality, silence and peace” – Carl Sandburg (1878-1967).

“It has been said that the love of money is the root of all evil” – Samuel Butler (1835-

1948)

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PART 1 – BEFORE YOU WRITE

DISCUSSING A QUOTATION

Free writing is a good way to generate ideas on a topic before you write. When
Free writing is a good way to generate ideas on a
topic before you write. When you free write, you
write as fast as you can without thinking too much
about what you’re writing or where you are
headed. You do not need to think about grammar
and vocabulary. You also do not have to worry
about connecting your ideas. You can sometimes
come up with your best ideas when you allow
yourself to free write.
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CHAPTER 3 – BUSINESS AND MONEY

PART 1 – BEFORE YOU WRITE

Luck oror Thievery

Luck

Thievery

COLUMBUS, OHIO. October 28 was a lucky day for motorists driving along Interstate 71 at about 9:30 in the morning. As a truck from the Metropolitan Armored Car Company sped down the highway, its back door blew open and bags of money fell onto the road. When other vehicles hit the bags, the bags split open, spewing over a million dollars all over the highway. It didn’t take motorists long enough to realize that the paper swirling around them was cash. They stopped on and around the highway and scooped up handfuls of money, gleefully putting $20, $50, $100 even $1,000 dollar bills into bags, pockets, ad purses. When the police arrived, they estimated that over two hundred people had been helping themselves to the bonanza. Officials hoping to recover the money were not so gleeful. Columbus Mayor Dana G. Rinehart called the motorists who took the money thieves and said, “May they have many sleepless nights.” He states the government will prosecute anyone the police can find. To encourage the return of the money, Metropolitan Armored Car Company has offered a reward of 10% of all the money they receive. So far, however, they have received only $100,000 from about thirty different people. One man gave back $57,000. Another man, however, called to say he was set for life and was leaving town. Since the cash was insured and belonged to local banks, many people can’t see that they are hurting anyone by keeping it. Even if the government prosecutes, it will have trouble convicting the thieves. “Probably two-thirds of the jurors would think the defendants should have kept the money,” said

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PART 1 – BEFORE YOU WRITE

VOCABULARY BUILDING

  • 1. Armored

Protected from loss

  • 2. Split

Pick up

  • 3. Spew

Very happy

  • 4. Recover

Charged with a crime

  • 5. Scoop up

Find guilty of a crime

  • 6. Gleeful

Spill

  • 7. Bonanza

Tear open

  • 8. Prosecute

Find

  • 9. Convict

Sudden rich

10.Insured

Protected with a strong metal

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PART 2 – DEVELOPING WRITING SKILLS

DEVELOPING COHESION AND CLARITY

EXPRESSING OBLIGATION AND GIVING ADVICE WITH MODALS

Giving advice using Should, Shouldn’t and Ought to.

  • - You should do your homework every night.

  • - You shouldn’t spend a lot of money. You need to save it for vacation.

Expressing Obligation using the modals: Have to, Don’t have to, Must, Must not.

  • - They must arrive on time, or we will leave without them.

  • - You have to turn in our papers tomorrow. We don’t have to type them.

MAY

MIGHT

CAN

COULD

WILL

WOULD

SHALL

SHOULD

OUGHT TO

Asking for Permission

May I go to the conference?

Future Possibility

  • I may be able to help you with your project tomorrow.

Present Possibility

We might be interrupting their lunch.

Future Possibility

They might make us an offer.

Ability

They can fix the problem.

Inability

They can’t fix the problem.

Request

Can I have a cup of coffee?

Asking for Permission

Can I smoke in here?

Request

Could you help me?

Asking for Permission

Could I take tomorrow off?

Suggestion

We could try unplugging it.

Future Possibility

  • I could come to LA next month.

Ability in the Past

  • I left London so I could get a job here.

Promise

I’ll give you a call on Monday.

Instant Decision

I’ll take these figures with me.

Offer

We’ll book your tickets if you like.

Certain Prediction

We will see an increase in salary next year.

Asking for Permission

Would you mind if I opened a window?

Request

Would you make me a coffee?

Making Arrangement

Would you be available at 6pm tonight?

Invitation

Would you like to go out sometime?

Preferences

Would you prefer the window seat or the aisle?

Asking what to do

Shall I get the phone, or will you?

Offer

Shall I call a cab?

Suggestion

Shall we say 10pm at Roxy's then?

Advice

You should see a doctor, you don’t look well.

Recommending Action

We should get a specialist.

Uncertain Prediction

Salaries should go up next year.

Advice

You ought to go to the dentist before you leave.

Obligation/Necessity

  • I must leave now to catch my train.

 

You mustn’t ask too many questions.

MAY

MIGHT

CAN

COULD

OUGHT

TO

MUST

Asking for Permission

Future Possibility

Present Possibility

Future Possibility

Ability

Inability

Request

Asking for Permission

Request

Asking for Permission

Suggestion

Future Possibility

Ability in the Past

Advice

Obligation/Necessity

May I go to the conference?

  • I may be able to help you with your project tomorrow.

We might be interrupting their lunch. They might make us an offer. They can fix the problem. They can’t fix the problem. Can I have a cup of coffee? Can I smoke in here? Could you help me? Could I take tomorrow off? We could try unplugging it.

  • I could come to LA next month.

  • I left London so I could get a job here.

You ought to go to the dentist before you leave.

  • I must leave now to catch my train. You mustn’t ask too many questions.

WILL

WOULD

SHALL

SHOULD

Promise

Instant Decision

Offer

Certain Prediction

Asking for Permission

Request

Making Arrangement

Invitation

Preferences

Asking what to do

Offer

Suggestion

Advice

Recommending

Action

Uncertain Prediction

 

I’ll give you a call on Monday. I’ll take these figures with me. We’ll book your tickets if you like. We will see an increase in salary next year. Would you mind if I opened a window? Would you make me a coffee? Would you be available at 6pm tonight? Would you like to go out sometime? Would you prefer the window seat or the aisle? Shall I get the phone, or will you? Shall I call a cab? Shall we say 10pm at Roxy's then? You should see a doctor, you don’t look well.

We should get a specialist.

Salaries should go up next year.

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USING MODALS IN SENTENCES

1

Paying taxes

one should pay taxes no matter how much money he or she makes.

one should pay taxes no matter how much money he or she makes.

2

Drinking alcohol and then driving

You must not drive if you drink alcohol

1 Paying taxes one should pay taxes no matter how much money he or she makes.
 

overnment should spend more money to clean up the environment.

3

Spending a lot of money to clean up the environment

ought to give more money to the poor and the homeless.

ought to give more money to the poor and the homeless.

4

Giving money to the poor

You must stop lying to me.

You must stop lying to me.

5

on’t

Lying

think I have to return jewelry found on the street.

think I have to return jewelry found on the street.

le shouldn’t steal or rob even if they really need money.

6

Trying to find the owner of jewelry found on the street

shouldn’t borrow a friend’s car unless you really have to.

shouldn’t borrow a friend’s car unless you really have to.

7

Robbing a person’s house if you need money

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STRATEGY

SUPPORTING AN OPINION WITH EXAMPLES A General truth is a statement of opinion that a lot
SUPPORTING AN OPINION WITH EXAMPLES
A General truth is a statement of opinion that a lot of people would agree
with. When you write general truths, since they are still opinions, not facts,
you should follow them with a supporting example.
Example:
Most people like to have more money. That is why lotteries are so popular.
General
Supporting
truth
example
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PART 2 – DEVELOPING WRITING SKILLS

ANALYZING THE ORGANIZATION OF A LETTER

October 20, 2015 Dear Editor, Regarding the article about people who don’t pay taxes on money they make from small home businesses (Government Targets Small Business Owners, Oct 23.), my opinion is that the government should stay out of at least one part of our lives – our income!

First of all, most people who run small businesses are hones, law-abiding citizens. Many of them have other jobs where they pay more than their share of taxes (unlike the very wealthy, who find ways to pay almost no taxes). Others are people who want jobs where taxes are automatically taken out of their paychecks but can’t find them.

Secondly, the government requires too much paperwork from small businesses. If these businesspeople have to keep the complicated records that the tax people require, they won’t have time to sell old furniture, prepare food for parties, or whatever their business involves. Finally, and most importantly, this is supposed to be a free country, but the government interferes everywhere. Let us be free at least in our own homes! Sincerely, Al Melinowski Miami

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IDENTIFYING GENERAL TRUTHS AND EXAMPLES

IDENTIFYING GENERAL TRUTHS AND EXAMPLES - Look at the second paragraph in the letter to the editor in. It states a general truth and then supports it with examples. What is the general truth? What are the examples?

GENERAL TRUTH:

t people who run those small businesses are honest, law-abiding citizens.

EXAMPLES:

Many of them have other jobs where they pay more than their share of taxes (unlike the very wealthy, who find ways to pay almost no taxes). Others are people who want jobs where taxes are automatically taken out of their paychecks, but can’t find such jobs.

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WRITING EXAMPLES

1

The government loses millions of dollars every year because of people who don’t pay their share of taxes.

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2

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Most people who run those small businesses are honest, law-abiding citizens.

Almost everyone lies in one way or another.

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Lying is more common than you think.

3

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Money is the root of all evil.

People commit all kinds of crimes for money.

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4

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Lack of money is the cause of many problems in our society.

If people do not have enough money, they won’t be able to take care

of themselves well.

5

Many lost items don’t have any form of identification on them.

If you find something, it’s yours.

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PART 3 – REVISING AND EDITING

AVOIDING FAULTY REASONS

FALSE ANALOGY “Assuming that 2 things are similar in all ways just because they are similar
FALSE ANALOGY
“Assuming that 2 things are similar in all ways just because they are similar
on one or two ways.”
Example:
Opinion:
Reason:
Dancing is the same as fighting
Both are done with a partner
This is a false analogy. Just because both activities (dancing and fighting)
include two people, does not mean they are the same.
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AVOIDING FAULTY REASONS

OVERGENERALIZATION

Saying that something is true for all people situations when it is only true for some, or making a general statement based on only a few cases.

Example:

Opinion:

Rich men aren’t generous

Reason:

There is a wealthy man who comes into the restaurant where I am a waiter, and he never leaves a tip.

This is an overgeneralization. The opinion is based on the case of only one person (one rich man).

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AVOIDING FAULTY REASONS

IRRELEVANT ARGUMENT

“Giving an example or reason that does not relate to the opinion.”

Example:

Opinion:

I don’t think the accountant was the one who stole money from the

company.

Reason:

She is so nice. She always says hello to me.

The fact that a person is friendly and seems nice has nothing to do with whether she is capable of stealing.

An irrelevant argument might also suggest that because one event follows another, it relates to it, when it really doesn’t.

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AVOIDING FAULTY REASONS

IRRELEVANT ARGUMENT An irrelevant argument might also suggest that because one event follows another, it relates
IRRELEVANT ARGUMENT
An irrelevant argument might also suggest that because one event follows
another, it relates to it, when it really doesn’t.
Example:
Opinion:Borrowing money always causes problems
Reason:
Two day after Mario borrowed money from a friend, he had
a car
accident.
Obviously, Mario’s car accident was not caused by borrowing money.
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AVOIDING FAULTY REASONS

CIRCULAR REASONING

Giving a reason that only restates the opinion in different words.

Example:

Opinion:

Peter never lies

Reason:

He is always truthful.

This is a circular reasoning. The reason (He is always truthful) is a restatement of the opinion (Peter never lies).

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AVOIDING FAULTY REASONING

  • 1. Everyone should return the money because the money should go back to the

Circular Reasoning

bank.

________________

  • 2. I heard about a woman who got some of the money and didn’t return it. The next day she fell and broke her leg. Then she knew she had done the wrong

Irrelevant Argument

thing.

___________________

  • 3. Insurance company always cheat people. My insurance company took

Overgeneralization

once.

advantage of me

_________________

  • 4. Picking up the money that fell onto the road is similar to picking flowers that

False Analogy

forest.

grow in the

_____________

  • 5. The motorists who stopped to take the money should not be prosecuted for

stealing.

Irrelevant Argument

accident.

They didn’t cause the

___________________

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REVISING FOR CONTENT

CORRECTING SPELLING ERRORS

  • 1. If a word is too long to fit at the end of the line, divide it between syllables and put

the second

  • 2. part Don’t of divide the word words on that the next have line. one syllable.

  • 3. Divide words after prefixes or before suffixes. Con-struc-tion Em-bez-zle-ment Com-fort-a-ble

  • 4. Divide words between two consonants.

Col-lege

Ad-dic-tion

Com-pul-sive

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Always edit your writing for spelling errors. When you do, review the spelling rules but remember
Always edit your writing for spelling errors.
When you do, review the spelling rules but
remember that you can’t always count on
rules to help you with spelling. You will often
have to use your dictionary to check words
you are not sure you have spelled correctly.
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MAKING A CORRECT HYPHENATION

  • 1. Place

  • 2. Borrowing

  • 3. Expensive

  • 4. Accounting

  • 5. Irrelevant

  • 6. Organization

  • 7. Argument

  • 8. Immoral

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

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CORRECTING SPELLING ERRORS

  • 1. Successful

 

________

  • 2. Moralety

________

  • 3. Evil

 

________

  • 4. Honnestly

________

  • 5. Truly

________

  • 6. Estimatted

 

________

  • 7. Defendant

 

________

  • 8. Prosecutor

 

________

  • 9. Government

 

________

10. Taxs

 

________

11.Activitys

________

12.Educattion

 

________

13.Bigest ________

14.Partys

________ 15.Planing ________

16.Carefull ________

17.Decresing

________

18.Conserts

 

________

19.Beleive ________

20.Sincerly________