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APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL

ENGINEERING
Surficial Deposits
Surficial Deposits

Investigation of shallow surficial deposits is one


of
the
most
effective
applications
of
geophysical methods, both seismic and
electrical.

This work is included as a part of the regular


exploration work, in the several state highway
departments of the United States, for sand and
gravel deposits and in the classification of
highway excavation before the material is
moved.

ENGINEERING
Groundwater: Geophysical
Method

Can geophysical methods be used


successfully to determine the
existence and position of
groundwater?
Geophysical Method

Geophysical methods by themselves will not "discover"


groundwater, yet they can be of considerable
assistance in determining subsurface conditions that
are favorable to the occurrence of groundwater,
although a drill hole must always be put down to make
actual confirmation.

APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Groundwater: Boreholes

Boreholes
They are often necessary to verify
only the groundwater surface.

APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Groundwater: Resistivity of Rocks
Resistivity of rock
It depends mainly on two factors, held
in the pores and discontinuities of the
rock,:
1.
2.

Porosity of the rock


Salinity of the solution
In general, resistivities are high for
dense, impervious rocks and low for
porous, water-bearing rocks.

APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Groundwater: Resistivity of Rocks
For Example:
Bruckshaw and Dixey give the following
typical values for resistivity.

Fresh crystalline rocks 20, 0001,000,000 ohm cm


Consolidated sedimentary rocks 1,00050,000 ohm cm
Recent unconsolidated formations
505,000ohm cm

APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Construction Operations
Geophysical
Explorations
early
examples
achieved notable results in civil engineering
applications:
1. The Bridge Tunnel
The Bridge River Tunnel was completed in
1930 for the British Columbia Electric Railway
Company, Ltd.
The 3,960-rn (13,200ft) tunnel passes
through Mission Mountain at a depth of 720 m
(2,400ft) below the summit. It was constructed
in connection with hydroelectric development
and is located 175 km (100ml) northeast of

APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Construction Operations
Geophysical Explorations early examples
achieved notable results in civil engineering
applications:
2. New England Power Associations
Hydroelectric Station
The first application of geophysical
methods to civil engineering work in North
America was made in 1928 at the site of the
Fifteen Mile Falls hydroelectric station of the
New England Power Association on the
Connecticut River near Littleton, New

APPLICATIONS IN CIVIL
ENGINEERING
Construction Operations
Geophysical Explorations early examples
achieved notable results in civil
engineering applications:
3. Larger Federal Engineering Organizations
Probably the most extensive use of
geophysical methods in the practice of civil
engineering has been in the United States:
1. the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
2. the Bureau of Reclamation
3. the Federal Highway Administration

URBAN SITE EXPLORATION

Cross Section of a Building

URBAN SITE EXPLORATION

Cross Section of an Urban


Site

URBAN SITE EXPLORATION

Throughout the world, a large proportion of


civil engineering works is carried out in
urban areas, where most large buildings
are located.

Civil engineers charged with the design


and construction of urban public works are
well aware that the geology beneath city
streets will be just as complex, as
interesting, and as vital to their work as is
geology of sites far beyond city limits.

URBAN EXPLORATION

Site area searches for published records of


urban geology should begin with the
respective national or state (or provincial)
geological survey.

Some surveys have published this useful


information in the form of maps, others as
smaller-scale maps supplemented by
descriptive memoirs.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Boston, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts

Boston must be given pride of place in any


listing, since in the first published copy of
the Journal of the Boston Society of Civil
Engineers (1914) there appeared a paper
by J.R. Worcester, entitled "Boston
Foundations," in which an assembly of
boring records was featured.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Boston, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts

URBAN EXPLORATION
Boston, Massachusetts
Committee

The purpose of this Committee is to gather


data regarding the character of the subsoils in Boston and adjacent areas, and to
present it to the Society in such form as to
add to the general knowledge and to make
it available for reference by any who may
wish to get a clear idea of the geological
construction under this City.

URBAN EXPLORATION
New York, New York
New York, New York

URBAN EXPLORATION
New York, New York
New York, New York

As early as 1902, the U.S. Geological


Survey published the New York City Folio
as no. 83 of its Atlas; this was followed in
1905 by the publication of Bulletin no. 270.

The Configuration of the Rock Floor of


Greater New York, based on a study of over
1,400 borings.

URBAN EXPLORATION
San Francisco and Oakland,
California
San Francisco and Oakland, California

URBAN EXPLORATION
San Francisco and Oakland,
California
San Francisco and Oakland, California

In 1957, there was published a map


showing the engineering geology of the
Oakland West Quadrangle, followed in
1958 by a companion map of the geology
of the San Francisco North Quadrangle.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Montreal, Quebec
Montreal, Quebec

URBAN EXPLORATION
Montreal, Quebec
Montreal, Quebec

In 1966, the Montreal City Planning


Department (Service d Urbanisrne)
published as their Bulletin no. 4, a color
brochure of convenient size (by the use of
folding plates) illustrating very clearly the
general bedrock and soil geology of the
island of Montreal and the immediately
adjacent areas.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Montreal, Quebec

A fine geologic map accompanies


Geological Report no. 152 of the Geological
Exploration Service of the Quebec Ministry
of Natural Resources. This work has now
been even further extended (1986) as a
"Cities of the World" paper in the Bulletin
of the Association of Engineering
Geologists.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

URBAN EXPLORATION
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

On a somewhat different scale is a


publication of the Topographic and
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania dealing
with the geology of the Pittsburgh area as
prepared in cooperation with the Pittsburgh
Geological Society.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

The dour pages of references to


publications relating to the geology of the
Pittsburgh area alone make thus
publication worthwhile as a starting point
for the more detailed studies required for
urban civil engineering work.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Archival Records
Archival Records

Urban Areas Past


History

URBAN EXPLORATION
Archival Records
Archival Records

All urban areas have some form of records


of their past history.

Some may be very sketchy and so not of


much use in site studies, but others may
reveal information of great value.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Archival Records

In earlier times, the local public library was


the usual repository for old city maps, old
prints showing the location before modern
growth began, and similar historical
records.

Today, many cities have their own


specialist archival staffs, and in the case of
some larger cities, their own archives.

URBAN EXPLORATION
Archival Records

Now that archival material is being


properly collected, search is also
warranted in the archives of the respective
state (or province), or even the national
archives, since their map rooms often
contain unsuspected treasures.

URBAN EXPLORATION
New York, New York
New York, New York

The twin towers of the World Trade Center


at the foot of Manhattan in New York City
are known around the world.

Their foundations rest on the well-known


Manhattan schist, in an excavation 21.3 m
(70 ft) deep, and cover an area of six city
blocks.