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It is the separation of solids from a suspension

in a liquid by means of porous medium or

screen which retains the solids and allows the
liquid to pass.

Classification of filtration
(A) By driving force
1. Gravity
2. Under pressure
3. Centrifugal force across the screen

Classification of filtration
(B) By Filtration mechanism
1. Cake filtration
2. Filter medium filtration

Classification of filtration
(C) By Function
1. Cake is desired product
2. Filtrate is desired product
3. Both

Classification of filtration
(D) By operation cycle
1. Batch
2. Continuous

Classification of filtration
(E) By Nature of solids
1. Cake filtration
2. Filter medium filtration

The factors to be considered when

selecting equipment are:
1. The properties of the fluid, particularly its

viscosity, density and corrosive properties

2. The nature of solid
Particle size
Size distribution
Packing characteristics

The factors to be considered when

selecting equipment are:
3. The concentration of solids in suspension
4. The quantity of material to be handled and
its value
5. Whether the product of importance is solid,
liquid or both
6. Whether it is necessary to wash the filtered

The factors to be considered when

selecting equipment are:
7. Whether feed liquor may be heated or any
other pretreatment is necessary

The rate of filtration depends on:

1. The pressure drop from the feed side to the

far side of the filter medium

The area of filtering surface
Viscosity of filtrate
Resistance of filter cake
Resistance of filter medium and initial layers
of the cake

Filter Media
Function: Generally to act as a support for the

filter cake.
Manufactured from
Synthetic polymers

Selection of filter media

1. Ability to build the solids on the pores

quickly after the feed is started

Minimum resistance to flow of filtrate
Resistance to chemical attack
Sufficient strength to withstand the filtering
Acceptable resistance to mechanical wear

Selection of filter media

6. Ability to discharge cake easily and cleanly
7. Ability to conform mechanically to the type of
filtering equipment
8. Minimum cost
9. Long life

Filter aid
It is a solid material, hard, strong particles

that are incompressible.

They are forming permeable filter cake.
Used for sludges that are difficult to filter.
Useful in slurries containing very finely
divided solids or slimy material.

Filter aid
They should be porous and capable of forming

a porous cake.
They must be chemically inert to the filtrate.
Materials used as filter aid:
Diatomaceous earth
Cellulosic fiber
Carbon fullers earth

Filter aids can be used in

2 ways
1. Pre-coating
. A thin layer of material laid on the filter

before the sludge is pumped to the

. This pre-coat prevents the colloidal particles
of the sludge from entangling with the filter
. Hence, prevents the resistance of the cloth
to become very high.

Filter aids can be used in

2 ways
Also facilitates the removal of cake at the end

of filtration.
Here, the filtering medium is really the precoat material rather than the filter cloth itself.
It is useful when the filtration is merely a
finishing operation.

Filter aids can be used in

2 ways
2. Using filter aid to incorporate it with the

sludge before sending it to the equipment.

. The presence of filter aid increases the
porosity of the sludge, decreases its
compressibility and reduces the resistance of
the cake during filtration

Constant rate filtration

Here, constant rate of filtrate is maintained by

starting at low pressure and continuously

increasing the pressure to overcome the
increasing resistance of the cake until
maximum pressure is reached at the end of
the run

Constant rate filtration

The maximum pressure is reached only at the
end of the run and hence the whole cycle is less
than maximum capacity

Constant pressure
Here, full pressure is applied at the start of

filtration and this pressure is maintained

constant throughout the run.

Constant pressure
If the initial pressure is high, the first particles

caught will be compacted into a tight mass that

largely fills the pores of the cloth and results in a
low rate of filtration throughout the rest of the cycle

Constant pressure filtration is to operate at

constant rate during the first part of filtration and

as soon as the cloth is coated with solids ,the
pressure is increased to the maximum and filtration
is completed at constant pressure.