COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE PROJECT
SUBMITTED TO: MRS. VIDHYA THAKKAR SUBMITTED BY: YOGESH TEKWANI(238)
WORK LIFE EVOLUTION
Stages of Our Journey
• Struggle stage • Juggle stage • Work-life balance stage • Integration stage • Work-life harmony stage
THE WORK LIFE BALANCE MYTH
What is Work/Life Balance?
demands of both a person’s job and personal life are equal”
“A state of equilibrium in which the
Many things to many people…
for most it is just a feeling….
When we feel fully satisfied with both our personal life and our career it can be said that we are balanced….
The ability to effectively manage the juggling act between paid work and the other activities that are important to people. – Family/Friends – Recreation – Spiritual – Health and Wellness
The result Conflicts
Conflicts are natural because we are managing two full lives – life at work and life at home.
You reap as you sow
It is a choice to be made by every individual.
And good or bad he or she has to live with the results of those choices...
“Work-life balance” was coined to address the unhealthy life choices that many people were making; they were choosing to neglect other important areas of their lives such as family, friends, and hobbies in favor of work-related chores and goals…
Work / Life Today
Fast pace Unending demands Increasing pressure to improve performance Multiple inputs Constant state of change Increasing complexity Shorter cycle times Increased volume of information
demographic & social changes…
More women in the labour force: – 46% of women aged 25 or older in labour force in 2008 (27% in 1976) Family patterns are changing: – More dual-income families – More single-parent families – More employees have elderly dependents Indian society is more diverse: – Aboriginal population – visible minorities
things are different now….
% of women working outside the home
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 19% 60%
% of children with a stay-athome mother
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 24%
time stress is on the rise…
Both genders report feeling moderately stressed, but women are more severely Stressed . Average number of hours spent per day is higher among women, depending on the activity. For example: – Unpaid work – Leisure Resulting in higher Stress in women…
time stress is on the rise…
54 74 80 63 80 86 0 20 40 60 80 100
40 - 55 Under 40 Over 55
40 - 55 Under 40
% Experiencing 'Some' or 'A Great Deal' of Stress from Work/Life Balance
Need for Indian firms to compete globally: – Dealing with downsizing and restructuring of organizations – Rise in service sector employment / decline in goods-producing sector employment – Skills shortages in key areas (engineering and management)
Nature of Jobs is Changing..
Technological advancement has driven the need for increased level of skilled workers: •Decrease in job security and/or an increase in unemployment /underemployment for those with lack of skills to compete in today’s labour market. •Longer work days and more shift work Overrepresentation of employed women in non-standard work
WORK INVADING IN PERSONAL LIFE...
Diverse Groups Affected by Work-life imbalance…..
•Aging workforce •Recent immigrants and visible minorities •Aboriginal people •Persons with disabilities •Rural residents •Parents of young children •Lone parents
WHAT IS THE RESULTS OF Imbalance ?
• Individual • Organizational
Imbalance = Stress
Job Demands • Multiple Roles • Technology • Staffing Patterns • Family Requirements • Civic Requirements
High Stress = Health Risks
• Emotional health suffers – Depression, guilt, anxiety, tension – Sleeplessness • Physical health risks increase – High blood pressure and high cholesterol – Headaches and other illness – Alcohol or drug use – Suicide
How do we know we are out of balance?
Are you Bitter, Angry, Totally Tired and Yucky ? If so, you may be experiencing Imbalance between your work and personal life.
• Heart pounding, muscle tension, • shortness of breath • Dry mouth, high blood pressure • Fatigue, insomnia • Weakness, dizziness • Headaches, stomach distress
• Depressed, helpless, anxious • Nervous, confused, worried • Bored, negative attitude/thoughts • Unable to concentrate, suspicious, lethargic
Behavioral (action or inaction)
• Cigarette smoking, use of medications, • drug/alcohol abuse • Over/under eating, impulsive behaviour • Fault finding, blaming, overly argumentative • Inflexible, cynical, quickly angered, decline in work • effectiveness
Striving for a perfect balance
is it a seesaw..
Balance is elusive and difficult to maintain…. Compromises are constantly made, with the scales of balance shifting along with the occasional long workday or work assignment, family obligations, or any one of a number of life’s little surprises.
Achieving work-life balance a process
• Getting it right is an iterative process. • You get better at it with experience and observation and eventually you will find it is not really hard. • It is just what and how you do things. • DO----LEARN----DO
WHY, ORGANISATION NEED TO SUPPORT WORK LIFE BALANCE ?
WLB is a critically important management strategy In a globalizing era
Leading to better competitiveness
•Enable men to be involved in social activities •Better environment to utilize women’s ability
INITIATIVES FOR WORK / LIFE BALANCE
•The legal provisions governing work-life balance, much of them driven by EU directives, were significantly extended in April 2003. •In 2004, the Government published a ten-year strategy for childcare, including proposals to extend the existing statutory provisions on maternity and paternity leave: these provisions have resulted in the Work and Families Act 2006 much of which became effective from April 2007 onwards.
The existing provisions include:
From 1 April 2009, all employees are entitled to a minimum of 28 days paid annual holiday. Bank holidays can be counted towards this entitlement.
The working week is limited to 48 hours, averaged over 17 weeks, for employees who have not ‘opted out’. The Working Time Regulations also provide for minimum rest periods and make special provision for night work.
There is a right to 13 weeks unpaid parental leave for men and women at any time up to the child’s fifth birthday. This must be taken in blocks or multiples of one week, with 21 days notice given to the employer
Time off for dependant care...
The right to take unpaid time off to deal with family emergencies (e.g. concerning an elderly parent, partner, child or other person living as part of the family).
All women are entitled to 26 weeks maternity leave, plus an extra 26 weeks additional maternity leave, making 52 weeks in total.
Fathers are entitled to 2 weeks paid paternity leave, which can be taken as a single block of one or two weeks within the 56 days following the child's birth.
Employees adopting a child are entitled to 26 weeks ordinary adoption leave and 26 weeks additional adoption leave. Only one parent may take adoption leave: if they qualify, the other parent may take paternity leave.
Right to request flexible working...
Employees with children under the age of 17 (under age 18 if disabled) and those with caring responsibilities for adults including those with elderly or disabled relatives can request a change to their working arrangements, for example, in their hours, time or place of work. The employer can refuse such a request on specified business grounds but must follow a detailed procedure.
Part-timers are entitled to the same hourly rate of pay and the same entitlements to annual leave and maternity/parental leave as full-timers but on a pro rata basis. Part-timers must also have the same entitlement to contractual sick pay and no less favourable treatment in access to training.
An employer cannot subject an employee to a detriment because they attempted to exercise their rights to work flexibly or take maternity, paternity, adoption or parental leave. Employees who suffer unfair treatment at work for these reasons may make a separate complaint to an employment tribunal as well as any discrimination or constructive unfair dismissal claim
BENEFITS OF GOOD WORK – LIFE BALANCE...
•higher productivity and competitiveness •increased flexibility and customer service, for example to cover for absence and holidays •raised morale, motivation, commitment and engagement •reduced absenteeism
BENEFITS OF GOOD WORK – LIFE BALANCE...
•improved recruitment and retention of a diverse workforce •wanting to become an ‘employer of choice’ •meeting legal requirements.
Some best practices to achieve work good work life balance
You are not superman/superwoman, have realistic expectations of yourself Being perfect is impossible Life never goes as planned Life is not easy Accept periods in your life
Set goals for different aspects of your life and make them: • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Realistic • Time bound Set long term and short term goals
• Is your pie cut the way you want it to be? • Do the slices of the pie have to be equal? Why or Why Not? • How do you know what you value?
Change of perspective...
figure out what’s Getting in the Way...
• What is causing stress?
• Then what happens? • What can you do?
Determine what is most important for you Decide who you would like to be most Make conscious decisions
The urgent/important grid
Life-style and attitude..
“Every man dies, but not every man lives.“
courage to say “no”
You cannot meet everybody’s expectations Choose Ask for help Value your own opinion
Try to be conscious about the moment Concentrate on one thing at a time Appreciate good things in your life No worries Enjoy the ride
Monitor your workload...
•If you are the employee, speak out when you are overloaded. Ask for help or negotiate more realistic expectations •If you are the supervisor, learn how to delegate more effectively. Don’t try to do the work of your employees
don’t miss all the fun
Use your commute time wisely...
It may be the only time that you have to yourself all day. Try to think of it as a “gift” to yourself. Use the time to unwind and make the mental transition from home to work, and from work to home. Listen to relaxing music or audio books.
Leave work at work...
With today's global business mentality and the technology to connect to anyone at any time from virtually anywhere, there's no boundary between work and home — unless you create it. Make a conscious decision to separate work time from personal time. When with your family, for instance, turn off your cell phone and put away your laptop computer.
Share the workload at home..
•Try to make meal preparation fun; include your children and turn on some lively music - dance and sing together. •Help others in their work.
Set aside time each day for an activity that you enjoy, such as walking, working out or listening to music. Unwind after a hectic workday by reading, practicing yoga, or taking a bath or shower.
Be honest with yourself...
This is the hardest one, but also the most necessary. Part of your weekly review — or at least every third or fourth one — should be to ask yourself “Am I happy with all this?” And to follow up by looking at how well you’re doing of balancing everything. Be honest — this is your life we’re talking about. If you can’t face the hard questions, all the life hacks and organizing won’t mean a thing — you’ll just slide away.
Always keep in mind...
Rule 1: Know all of your commitments and roles Rule 2: Know your goals Rule 3: Determine your present situation Rule 4: Determine how much time you have for a task Rule 5: Determine how much personal energy you have Rule 6: Based on the above factors choose to work on the item that will give you the biggest payoff towards your goals.
REMEMBER..... There are about 10 minutes in the life of a pear when it is perfect to eat. -Ralph Waldo Emerson