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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
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T

2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook

OBJECTIVES
LEARNING

AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER,


YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
1. Describe forces that act as stimulants to
change.
2. Summarize the sources of individual and
organizational resistance to change.
3. Summarize Lewins three-step change model.
4. Explain the values underlying most OD efforts.
5. Identify properties of innovative organizations.
6. List characteristics of a learning organization.

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192

7. Define knowledge management and explain its


importance.
8. Describe potential sources of stress.
9. Explain individual difference variables that
moderate the stressoutcome relationship.

LEARNING

O B J E C T I V E S (contd)

AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER,


YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

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193

Forces
Forces for
for Change
Change

EXHIBIT
2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

19-1a
194

Forces
Forces for
for Change
Change (contd)
(contd)

EXHIBIT
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19-1b
195

Managing
Managing Planned
Planned Change
Change

Goals
Goalsof
ofPlanned
Planned
Change:
Change:
Improving
Improvingthe
theability
abilityof
of
the
theorganization
organizationto
toadapt
adapt
to
tochanges
changesininits
its
environment.
environment.
Changing
Changingthe
thebehavior
behaviorof
of
individuals
individualsand
andgroups
groupsinin
the
theorganization.
organization.

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196

Resistance
Resistance to
to Change
Change
Forms of Resistance to Change
Overt and immediate
Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions

Implicit and deferred


Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased
errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism

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197

Sources
Sources of
of Individual
Individual Resistance
Resistance to
to Change
Change

EXHIBIT
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19-2
198

Sources
Sources of
of Organizational
Organizational Resistance
Resistance to
to
Change
Change

EXHIBIT
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19-40
199

Overcoming
Overcoming Resistance
Resistance to
to Change
Change
Tactics
Tacticsfor
fordealing
dealingwith
withresistance
resistance
to
tochange:
change:
Education
Educationand
andcommunication
communication
Participation
Participation
Facilitation
Facilitationand
andsupport
support
Negotiation
Negotiation
Manipulation
Manipulationand
andcooptation
cooptation
Coercion
Coercion
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1910

The
The Politics
Politics of
of Change
Change
Impetus for change is likely to come from outside
change agents.
Internal change agents are most threatened by
their loss of status in the organization.
Long-time power holders tend to implement only
incremental change.
The outcomes of power struggles in the
organization will determine the speed and quality
of change.

2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1911

Lewins
Lewins Three-Step
Three-Step Change
Change Model
Model

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1912

Lewins
Lewins Three-Step
Three-Step Change
Change Model
Model

EXHIBIT
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19-5
1913

Unfreezing
Unfreezing the
the Status
Status Quo
Quo

EXHIBIT
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19-6
1914

Action
Action Research
Research

Action
Actionresearch
researchbenefits:
benefits:
Problem-focused
Problem-focusedrather
rather
than
thansolution-centered.
solution-centered.
Process
ProcessSteps:
Steps:
1.1. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
2.2. Analysis
Analysis
3.3. Feedback
Feedback

Heavy
Heavyemployee
employee
involvement
involvementreduces
reduces
resistance
resistanceto
tochange.
change.

4.4. Action
Action
5.5. Evaluation
Evaluation
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1915

Organizational
Organizational Development
Development

OD
ODValues:
Values:
1.1. Respect
Respectfor
forpeople
people
2.2. Trust
Trustand
andsupport
support
3.3. Power
Powerequalization
equalization
4.4. Confrontation
Confrontation
5.5. Participation
Participation

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1916

Organizational
Organizational Development
Development Techniques
Techniques

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1917

Organizational
Organizational Development
Development Techniques
Techniques
(contd)
(contd)

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1918

Organizational
Organizational Development
Development Techniques
Techniques
(contd)
(contd)

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1919

Organizational
Organizational Development
Development Techniques
Techniques
(contd)
(contd)
Team
TeamBuilding
BuildingActivities:
Activities:
Goal
Goaland
andpriority
priority
setting.
setting.
Developing
Developing
interpersonal
interpersonalrelations.
relations.
Role
Roleanalysis
analysisto
toeach
each
members
membersrole
roleand
and
responsibilities.
responsibilities.
Team
Teamprocess
processanalysis.
analysis.

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1920

Organizational
Organizational Development
Development Techniques
Techniques
(contd)
(contd)
Intergroup
IntergroupProblem
Problem
Solving:
Solving:
Groups
Groupsindependently
independently
develop
developlists
listsof
of
perceptions.
perceptions.
Share
Shareand
anddiscuss
discuss
lists.
lists.
Look
Lookfor
forcauses
causesof
of
misperceptions.
misperceptions.
Work
Workto
todevelop
develop
integrative
integrativesolutions.
solutions.
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1921

Organizational
Organizational Development
Development Techniques
Techniques
(contd)
(contd)
Appreciative
AppreciativeInquiry
Inquiry(AI):
(AI):
Discovery:
Discovery:recalling
recalling
the
thestrengths
strengthsof
ofthe
the
organization.
organization.
Dreaming:
Dreaming:speculation
speculation
on
onthe
thefuture
futureof
ofthe
the
organization.
organization.
Design:
Design:finding
findingaa
common
commonvision.
vision.
Destiny:
Destiny:deciding
decidinghow
how
to
tofulfill
fulfillthe
thedream.
dream.
2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1922

Contemporary
Contemporary Change
Change Issues
Issues for
for Todays
Todays
Managers:
Managers: Stimulating
Stimulating Innovation
Innovation
Sources
Sourcesof
ofInnovation:
Innovation:
Structural
Structuralvariables
variables
Organic
Organicstructures
structures
Long-tenured
Long-tenured
management
management
Slack
Slackresources
resources
Interunit
Interunit
communication
communication
Organizations
Organizationsculture
culture
Human
Humanresources
resources
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1923

Contemporary
Contemporary Change
Change Issues
Issues for
for Todays
Todays
Managers:
Managers: Creating
Creating aa Learning
Learning Organization
Organization
Characteristics:
Characteristics:
1.1. Holds
Holdsaashared
sharedvision
vision
2.2. Discards
Discardsold
oldways
waysof
of
thinking.
thinking.
3.3. Views
Viewsorganization
organizationas
as
system
systemof
ofrelationships.
relationships.
4.4. Communicates
Communicatesopenly.
openly.
5.5. Works
Workstogether
togetherto
to
achieve
achieveshared
sharedvision.
vision.

2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1924

Contemporary
Contemporary Change
Change Issues
Issues for
for Todays
Todays
Managers:
Managers: Creating
Creating aa Learning
Learning Organization
Organization

2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1925

Contemporary
Contemporary Change
Change Issues
Issues for
for Todays
Todays
Managers:
Managers: Creating
Creating aa Learning
Learning Organization
Organization
Fundamental
FundamentalProblems
Problemsinin
Traditional
TraditionalOrganizations:
Organizations:
Fragmentation
Fragmentationbased
basedon
on
specialization.
specialization.
Overemphasis
Overemphasison
on
competition.
competition.
Reactiveness
Reactivenessthat
that
misdirects
misdirectsattention
attentionto
to
problem-solving
problem-solvingrather
rather
than
thancreation.
creation.

2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1926

Contemporary
Contemporary Change
Change Issues
Issues for
for Todays
Todays
Managers:
Managers: Managing
Managing aa Learning
Learning Organization
Organization
Establish
Establish
aastrategy
strategy

Redesign
Redesignthe
the
organizations
organizations
structure
structure

Managing
Managing
Learning
Learning

Reshape
Reshapethe
the
organizations
organizationsculture
culture
2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1927

Contemporary
Contemporary Change
Change Issues
Issues for
for Todays
Todays
Managers:
Managers: Knowledge
Knowledge Management
Management (KM)
(KM)
Why
WhyKM
KMisisimportant:
important:
Intellectual
Intellectualassets
assetsare
areas
as
important
importantas
asphysical
physical
assets.
assets.
When
Whenindividuals
individualsleave,
leave,
their
theirknowledge
knowledgeand
and
experience
experiencegoes
goeswith
with
them.
them.
AAKM
KMsystem
systemreduces
reduces
redundancy
redundancyand
andmakes
makes
the
theorganization
organizationmore
more
efficient.
efficient.
2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

1928

Contemporary
Contemporary Change
Change Issues
Issues for
for Todays
Todays
Managers:
Managers: Culture-Bound
Culture-Bound Organizations
Organizations
Questions
Questionsfor
forculture-bound
culture-boundorganizations:
organizations:
1.1. Do
Dopeople
peoplebelieve
believechange
changeisiseven
evenpossible?
possible?
2.2. How
Howlong
longwill
willitittake
taketo
tobring
bringabout
aboutchange
changeininthe
the
organization?
organization?
3.3. IsIsresistance
resistanceto
tochange
changegreater
greaterininthis
thisorganization
organizationdue
due
to
tothe
theculture
cultureof
ofthe
thesociety
societyininwhich
whichititoperates?
operates?
4.4. How
Howwill
willthe
thesocietal
societalculture
cultureaffect
affectefforts
effortsto
toimplement
implement
change?
change?
5.5. How
Howwill
willidea
ideachampions
championsininthis
thisorganization
organizationgo
goabout
about
gathering
gatheringsupport
supportfor
forinnovation
innovationefforts?
efforts?
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1929

Work
Work Stress
Stress and
and Its
Its Management
Management

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1930

Work
Work Stress
Stress and
and Its
Its Management
Management

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1931

Too
Too Much
Much Work,
Work, Too
Too Little
Little Time
Time

EXHIBIT
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19-8
1932

Potential
Potential Sources
Sources of
of Stress
Stress
Environmental Factors
Economic uncertainties of the business cycle
Political uncertainties of political systems
Technological uncertainties of technical
innovations
Terrorism in threats to physical safety and
security

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1933

Potential
Potential Sources
Sources of
of Stress
Stress
Organizational Factors
Task demands related to the job
Role demands of functioning in an organization
Interpersonal demands created by other
employees
Organizational structure (rules and regulations)
Organizational leadership (managerial style)
Organizations life stage (growth, stability, or
decline)

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1934

Potential
Potential Sources
Sources of
of Stress
Stress (contd)
(contd)
Individual Factors
Family and personal relationships
Economic problems from exceeding earning
capacity
Personality problems arising for basic disposition

Individual Differences
Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the
individuals future.
Greater job experience moderates stress effects.
Social support buffers job stress.
Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress.
Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to
job stress.
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1935

Consequences
Consequences of
of Stress
Stress

High
High Levels
Levels
of
ofStress
Stress

Physiological
Physiological
Symptoms
Symptoms

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Psychological
Psychological
Symptoms
Symptoms

Behavioral
Behavioral
Symptoms
Symptoms

1936

AAModel
Model of
of Stress
Stress

EXHIBIT
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19-10
1937

Inverted-U
Inverted-U Relationship
Relationship between
between Stress
Stress and
and
Job
Job Performance
Performance

EXHIBIT
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19-11
1938

Managing
Managing Stress
Stress
Individual Approaches

Implementing time management


Increasing physical exercise
Relaxation training
Expanding social support network

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1939

Managing
Managing Stress
Stress
Organizational Approaches

Improved personnel selection and job placement


Training
Use of realistic goal setting
Redesigning of jobs
Increased employee involvement
Improved organizational communication
Offering employee sabbaticals
Establishment of corporate wellness programs

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1940