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SOCIALIZATION

class X

International Islamic High


School
International Islamic Education
Council

DEFINITION

Socialization is the process of learning


the roles, statuses, and values necessary
for participation in social institutions.
It begins with learning the norms and
roles of our family and our subculture and
making these part of our-self concept.
Socialization can be defined too the
process of transferring some ideas or
suggestion from society to the member of
society.

STAGES OF
SOCIALIZATION

Play Stage
is a learning process of peoples role around
them that occurs during early childhood.
Game Stage
In this stage, children not just realize their
role but they understand the others role who
they interact with.
Generalized Others
In this stage, children can interact with
society and taking the others role widely /
generalized others, not only significant others.

THEORIES OF
SOCIALIZATION

Looking-Glass Self
Charles Horton Cooley (1902) provided a
classic of how we develop our self-concept. The
looking-glass self is the process of learning to
view ourselves as we think others view us.
Role Taking
George Herbert Mead argued that we learn
social norms through the process of role
taking. Role taking involves imagining
ourselves in the role of the other in order to
determine the criteria others will use to judge
our behavior.

FORMS OF
SOCIALIZATION

Primary Socialization
is personality development and role learning that
occurs during early childhood. It occurs first and it
is most critical for later development. During this
period, children develop personality and selfconcept, acquire motor abilities, reasoning, and
language skills, and are exposed to a social world
consisting of roles, values, and norms.
Anticipatory/ Secondary Socialization
is role learning that prepares us for roles we are
likely to assume in the future
Resocialization
Resocialization occurs when we abandon our selfconcept and way of life radically different one. He/
She realize his/ her right and liability.

AGENTS OF
SOCIALIZATION

Family
The most important agent of socialization is the family.
Our parents are our first teachers. The activities required
to meet the physical needs of a newborn provide the
initial basis for social interaction. Feeding and diaper
changing give opportunities for cuddling, smiling, and
talking. These nurture activities are all vital to the
infants social and physical development; without them,
the childs social, emotional, and physical growth will be
stunted.
Schools
The central function of schools in industrialized societies
is to impart specific skills and abilities necessary for
functioning in a highly technological society. They also
transmit societys central cultural values and ideologies.

AGENTS OF
SOCIALIZATION

Peers
Peer-group membership places the child in a social
context where much of the learning that takes place
is informal and voluntary. It is the first agent of
socialization that the child actively chooses.
Mass Media
The most important mass medium for socialization,
however, is television. The effect of television viewing
on learning is vigorously debated, and the evidence is
somewhat contradictory. Through a process of
selective perception, we tend to give special notice to
material that supports our beliefs and self-concept
and to ignore material that challenges us.

AGENTS OF
SOCIALIZATION

Religion
It is an important source of individual direction. The
values and moral principles in religious doctrine give
guidance about appropriate roles and behaviors.
Workplace
The environments in which we work, however, are
very different. Kohn and his associates research,
indicates that the nature of our work affects our selfconcept and behavior. If your work demands flexibility
and self-discipline, you will probably come to value
these traits-at home, in government, and religion. If
your work requires subordination, discipline, and
routine, you will come to find these traits natural and
desirable (Kohn & Schooler 1983).