KOLEJ UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI TUN HUSSEIN ONN

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FLUID POWER ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 8 : SHOCK ABSORBER
FAISAL IKRAM BIN ABD SAMAD  
AK981156 
4 BWJ 
LECTURER : DR. ING. IR DARWIN
SEBAYANG

FRONT SUSPENSION SYSTEM

Sistem suspensi sesebuah kenderaan merupakan aspek yang sangat
penting untuk mangasingkan badan kenderaan dari hentakan dan
getaran yang berpunca dari keadaan jalan raya yang tidak rata.
Sistem suspensi juga menentukan sama ada pemanduan sesebuah
kenderaan berada di dalam keadaan stabil atau pun tidak stabil.
Selain itu, pemilihan parameters untuk sistem suspensi juga menentukan
keselesaan penumpang.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 MATHEMATICAL MODEL
Quarter
car model
y
k
2
k
1
c
1
m
1
m
2
x
1
x
2
Free body
diagrams
m
1
m
2
) (
.
1
.
2 1
x x c − ) (
1 2 1
x x k −
) (
2 2
x y k −
) ( ) (
1 2 1
.
1
.
2 1
..
1 1
x x k x x c x m − + − ·
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 1 2 1
.
1
.
2 1
..
2 2
x y k x x k x x c x m − + − − − − ·
Equation of motion

3.0 STATE SPACE REPRESENTATION
The equations of motion in terms of the displacements from equilibrium, x1 and x2, are
) ( ) (
1 2 1
.
1
.
2 1
..
1 1
x x k x x c x m − + − ·
) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 1 2 1
.
1
.
2 1
..
2 2
x y k x x k x x c x m − + − − − − ·
2.0
2.1
Divide equation 2.0 by m
1
and equation 2.1 by m
2
to obtain
( )
1 2
1
1
.
1
.
2
1
1
..
1
x x
m
k
x x
m
c
x − +

,
`

.
|
− ·
2.2
( ) ( )
2
2
2
1 2
2
1
.
1
.
2
2
1
..
2
x y
m
k
x x
m
k
x x
m
c
x − + − −

,
`

.
|
− − ·
2.3

Then define
, , ,
2 3
.
1 2 1 1
x z x z x z · · ·
and
.
2 4
x z ·
The input is the road surface displacement y (t). Note that these definitions imply that
2
1
.
z z ·
4
3
.
z z ·
and
Note also that ,
2
.
1
..
z x ·
4
2
..
z x ·
and
Substitute these variables into equation 2.2 and equation 2.3 to obtain
( ) ( )
1 3
1
1
2 4
1
1
.
2
z z
m
k
z z
m
c
z − + − ·
( ) ( ) ( )
3
2
2
1 3
2
1
2 4
2
1
4
.
z y
m
k
z z
m
k
z z
m
c
z − + − − − − ·
2.4
2.5

These four equations are the state variable model. They can be displayed in
matrix vector form as follows.
( ) t y
m
k
z
z
z
z
m
c
m
k
m
k
m
c
m
k
m
c
m
k
m
c
m
k
z
z
z
z
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

+
]
]
]
]
]
]


]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ −
− −
·
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

2
2
4
3
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
.
3
.
2
.
1
.
0
0
0
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
]
]
]
]
]
]


]
]
]

·
]
]
]

4
3
2
1
2
1
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1
z
z
z
z
x
x

Thus, the input matrices to be
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ −
− −
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
m
c
m
k
m
k
m
c
m
k
m
c
m
k
m
c
m
k
A =
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

2
2
0
0
0
m
k
B =

To plot and the output matrices to be
]
]
]

0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1
C =
D =
[ ] 0 0

( )
( )
( ) D B A sI C
s U
s Y
+ − ·
−1
4.0 PRODUCING TRANSFER FUNCTION
METHODS;
Block diagram reduction
Laplace transformation and reduction of differential equations
Directly from the state space formulation by

Thus the transfer function are:

Transfer function from disturbance to car body vertical position
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
y
k s c s m k s m k s c s m
k s c k
y s G x .
. . . . . .
.
.
1 1
2
. 1 2
2
2 1 1
2
1
1 1 2
1 1
+ + + + +
+
· ·

Transfer function from disturbance to wheel body vertical position
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
y
k s c s m k s m k s c s m
k s c s m k
y s G x .
. . . . . .
. .
.
1 1
2
. 1 2
2
2 1 1
2
1
1 1
2
1 2
2 2
+ + + + +
+ +
· ·
( )
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
2
1 1 2 1 2 1
3
1 1 2 1
4
2 1
2 1 1 2
1
.
k k s k c s k m m k k m s c m m c s m m
k k s c k
s H
+ + + + + + +
+
·
( )
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
2
1 1 2 1 2 1
3
1 1 2 1
4
2 1
1 2 1 2 1 2
2
.
k k s k c s k m m k k m s c m m c s m m
k k s c k s m k
s H
+ + + + + + +
+ +
·

Step Response
Time (sec)
A m p l i t u d e
0 0.5
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
KOCO
KDCD
KCCC
1.5
KO=24400, CO=3167
KD=30400, CD=4167
KC=27400, CC=3667
KCCC and KDCD = Produce lower %OS and having shorter settling time. Thus
its will give a better design for the Proton Wira suspension
system.

KCCC KDCD KOCO
Peak time Tp (s) 0.275 0.261 0.303
Peak amplitude 1.34 1.33 1.36
% OS 34.3 33.5 35.6
Settling time, Ts (s) 0.875 0.809 0.945
Rise time, Tr (s) 0.0953 0.0876 0.105
Time response for different suspension stiffness and damping coefficient.
- front right suspension

TOO HARD SUSPENSION
• big % OS and too short settling
time
TOO SOFT SUSPENSION
• big % OS and longer
settling time
GOOD HANDLING SUSPENSION
• small % OS and short settling time.
ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM
ROAD DISTURBANCE
Body motion
Wheel motion

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