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Computer

Overview

-ANNU SAINI

WHAT IS A
COMPUTER?
An electronic device
that performs various
tasks and operations
or stores, correlates,
or otherwise processes
data as per the set of
instructions given to
it.

FUNCTIONING OF A
COMPUTER

HAS GOT GRADE ‘A’ . 752 • PROCESSED DATA IS CALLED INFORMATION • FOR EXAMPLE MOHAN WHOSE ROLLNO IS 1977.162.DATA vs INFORMATION • DATA IS RAW FACTS AND FIGURES • FOR EXAMPLE ‘MOHAN’. 1977. ‘A’.9.

e it needs certain input.WHAT GOES IN IS DATA AND WHAT COMES OUT IS INFORMATION • THE PROCESS OF TURNING DATA INTO INFORMATION IS ALSO KNOWN AS INFORMATION PROCESSING CYCLE. (IPO CYCLE) i. carries out a process and produces the output .

FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER .

Disk Drive External Storage: Floppy disk. Computer: Output Device: CPU. Scanner. Printer.BASIC STRUCTURE OF A COMPUTER Input Device: Punch card reader. Optical disk. Voice. Mouse. Internal Memory Monitor. Keyboard. Plotter.Hard disk. Tape drive . Modem.

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Underlying Structure Secondar y Memory Logical Structure of Digital Computers .

e binary form so that it can be understood by the computer .Input Unit • Data and instruction from the user to the computer • Converts raw data into electronic form i.

The Central Processing Unit “brain” of a computer” • The CPU contains: Arithmetic / Logic Unit Control Unit Registers Performs calculations and makes decisions Coordinates processing steps Small storage areas 10 .

.CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) • Central Processor Unit (CPU) – Coordinating all computer operations – Performing arithmetic and logical operations on data – Contains two subcomponents • Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) • Control Unit (CU) – – Carries on all types of calculation (Arithmetic and logical operations) Controls the actions of the other components.

a CPU’s current instruction and data values are stored temporally inside the CPU in special high-speed memory location called registers. .– An integrated circuit (IC) that is a full central processing unit is called a microprocessor (p).

Computer Output Devices • The output information from the computer is in the form of electronic binary signals which needs conversion in some form which can be easily understood by human beings i. graphical.e characters.or audio visual – This function of conversion is performed by output units .

• Common output methods: – Printer – output to paper using various types of printers – Computer output microfilm (COM) – microfilm generated for archive copies in small space – Voice response units – computer recognizes input. generates verbal response messages .

Computer Memory All data flows to and from memory – Divided into cells: • Each has a unique address • Memory cell types: – Byte – stores one character of data – Word – stores two or more characters of data .

Memory Types of memory Main Memory Read Only Memory Secondary Memory RandomAccess Memory Hard Disk Flopp y Disk CDROM .

is called a bit • 1 Byte is 8 bits • 1 Nibble is 4 bits • 1 Kilobyte (KB) = 210 bytes (1024 bytes) 1 Megabyte (MB) =210 KB = 220 bytes(1024x1024) 1 Gigabyte (GB) = 210 MB= 230 bytes (1024x1024x1024) 1Terabyte(TB) = 210 GB=240 bytes 1 Petabyte(PT) = 210 TB=250 bytes .1.Measuring Memory • Each 0.

Types of Memory M e m o ry P r im a r y ROM PROM EPROM EAPROM EAPROM S e c o n d a ry RAM SRAM DRAM .

. • In PCs main memory usually called RAM (Random Access Memory). used to store the currently executing program and immediate data.Main memory • A PC's main memory place (or primary storage) is fast storage space that is directly accessible by the CPU. but cannot retain data without power. it isn’t suitable for long-term data storage. • Main memory is usually much faster than mass storage devices like hard disks or optical discs. That’s why.

Primary Memory It is the main or internal memory where execution takes place. It can be broadly categorized into two parts • RAM (Random Access Memory) • ROM (Read Only Memory) .

• Whatever information you store is temporary in nature and when you switch off the computer everything is erased. This memory is volatile. .RAM • It is known as the Read and Write memory.

A solution to this problem is the introduction of additional circuitry which performs a 'memory refresh' by periodically restoring the charge.Dynamic RAM • Dynamic Memory is often referred to as volatile memory. • Data is stored within the capacitance of a transistor. The capacitor is unable to prevent the charge from slowly discharging. • Dynamic memory is cheaper than Static memory and is used in larger memory systems. This would result in the loss of data. .

.Static RAM • Static memory is more expensive to produce than Dynamic memory. but because of its lower power consumption it is often used in small to medium sized systems. • Static memory retains data within a cell until the data is overwritten or lost as a result of power being shut down.

.ROM • It is a memory unit that performs the Read operation only and does not have a write capability. • The Binary information in the ROM is made permanent during the hardware production of the unit and it is not accessible to users to store information.

CD-ROM etc. The information stored is permanent in nature and it uses external storage devices like Floppy disk.Secondary Memory It is the Permanent memory. . Magnetic disk.

(Secondary Storage) • When power is off. disk drives. floppy drives • Optical CD or DVD drives . everything stored in memory is lost • Computer files are used to store data long term • File storage devices: • Magnetic tape drives.

magnetic disk drives .(Secondary Memory Storage) • Sequential access files – Usually stored on magnetic tape drives • Direct access files – Stored on Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD) .

• Types of DASD – Fixed (hard) drives Figure 2.7 Diagram of a Magnetic Disk Drive .

• Types of DASD
– Removable:
• Floppy drives
• Zip drives
• Newest: portable
DASD for PCs –
keychain/pen drive

Figure 2.8 USB Keychain Drive

Winchester Disks

SRAM, DRAM, SDRAM,
DDR,RDRAM, ..BLAM..
SRAM
CPU
Static Random Access Memory
BLAM
doesn’t need to be “refreshed” - but like all
10 ns
speed

RAM, is erased when the power is OFF

5-10X
slower

DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is a type of memory that is constantly
refreshed or will loose its contents.

SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) – designed to work with
the CPU clock to work faster than DRAM

DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM) – works twice as
fast as SDRAM

So how much and what type of memory should you get? • It will depend on the type of computer you have/or are buying – Older systems are no always compatible with newer memory types – Sometimes too much memory can cause problems with Windows • It will depend on the applications you wish to run – Photoshop or other graphical applications require much more memory than simple word processing – Do you wish to have many applications running simultaneously? .

44MB •CD’s & DVD’s – 600 MB. Jazz •Memory Sticks . RW) •Removable Hard drives –Zip.To save data for later use we can store data on Secondary (Auxiliary) Memory devices Auxiliary Memory is cheaper/slower than Primary memory but is not erased when the Power Supply is OFF.1. (Read vs. •Hard drive – A non-removable device 20-250GB ranges •Floppy disk drive.

Hardware and Software .

Example CPU.e the components that can be seen and touched. output devices etc Peripherals – are the devices that surround the system unit Example keyboard. printers. floppy disk. monitors etc are peripherals . hard disk . Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer i. input devices. speakers. mouse.

A computer consists of five primary hardware components .

organize data and communicate with other components .Input devices Output devices CPU Storage devices Memory These components work together with software to perform calculations.

 It’s three categories are:  Operating System  Language Processors  Application Software System Software .SOFTWARE  Software represents the set of programs that govern the operation of a computer system and make the hardware run.

OPERATING SYSTEM .

• What are the goals of an Operating System? – The primary goal of an Operating System is to make the computer system convenient to use. • What is the purpose of an operating system? – To provide an environment in which a user can execute programs. – The secondary goal is to make the computer system efficient to use. .An Operating System? • What is an Operating System? – A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware.

machines.Computer System Components • • • • Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU. Applications programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers. video games. database systems. Operating system – controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. . other computers). business programs). I/O devices). memory. Users (people.

ROLE OF OPERATING SYSTEM USER Interacts with APPLICATION SOFTWARE Interacts with OPERATING SYSTEM Interacts with CPU & HARDWARE .

Loads necessary programs into RAM which are required for proper functioning 3. . Coordinates how programs work with the CPU. Manages the information is stored on and retrieved from disks. Keyboard.printer and other hardware as well with other software 4.OPERATING SYSTEM PERFORMS THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS 1.e way to interact with user whether through typed commands or through graphical symbols 2. mouse. Provides the instructions to prepare userinterface i.

Types of OS • Single User • Multiuser • Batch Processing • Multiprocessing • Real Time •Supports single user •Can support many users •Processes the group of processes •Can handle many CPU’s at same time •Bound to dead lines .

LANGUAGE PROCESSORS CONVERTS HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE INTO MACHINE LANGUAGE SO AS TO MAKE IT UNDERSTANDABLE TO THE COMPUTER .

TYPES OF LANGUAGE PROCESSORS •ASSEMBLER •INTERPRETER •COMPILER .

• Assembler converts the program written in assembly language into machine language • Interpreter converts HLL program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line. • Compiler converts the entire HLL program in one go. and reports all the errors of the program along with the line numbers .

APPLICATION SOFTWARE An Application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application .

General Application Software It is developed keeping in mind the general requirements for carrying out a specific task . Customised Application Software It is developed to meet all the requirements specified by the user 2.TYPES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE 1.

Applications Software Computer programs written to perform specified tasks. They work in tandem with specific Operating Systems – – – – – – Word Processing Spreadsheets Database Management Systems Web design software Internet Access & E-mail Graphics Packages .

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF A COMPUTER • STRENGTHS • Speed • High Storage Capacity • Accuracy • Reliability (immune to fatigue & boredom) • Versatility (can perform repetitive jobs efficiently) WEAKNESSES •Lack of decision making •IQ Zero .

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS THE CONCEPT OF A COMPUTER DID NOT MATERIALIZE OVERNIGHT. LET US LOOK AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTER THROUGH VARIOUS STAGES .

ABACUS
• An ABACUS
consists of beads
divided into two
parts which are
movable on the
rods of the two
parts

NAPIER ‘LOGS’ AND
‘BONES’
• John Napier developed the
idea of logarithm.
• He used ‘logs’ to transform
multiplication problem to
addition problem
• This device later became
the basis for a ‘SLIDE
RULE’
• Napier also devised set of
numbering rods known as
‘Napier Bones’.

PASCAL’S ADDING
MACHINE
• Blaise Pascal, French mathematician
invented a machine in 1642 made up of
gears which was used for adding and
subtracting numbers quickly.
• This machine was called ADDING
MACHINE’
• it worked on clock work mechanism

.LEIBNITZ’S CALCULATOR • Gotfried leibnitz. a German mathematician .improved on ADDING MACHINE and constructed a machine in 1671 that was able to perform multiplication and division.

JACQUARD’S LOOM • JOSEPH JACQUARD manufactured punched cards at the end of American Evolution to control looms in 1801. . • The entire process was automatic and under a program’s control. • With the invention of punched cards the era of storing and retrieving information started that greatly effected later inventions.

BABBAGE’S DIFFERENCE ENGINE • Charles Babbage developed a machine called Difference Engine in 1822. • It was expected to calculate logarithmic tables to a higher degree of precision. • It was made to calculate various mathematical functions .

memory and inputoutput devices in his design. .BABBAGE’S ANALYTICAL ENGINE • This device becomes real ancestor of the modern day computer • It was capable of performing all four arithmetic operations as well as comparison. • It included the concept of central processor. storage area.

HOLLERITH’S MACHINE • Herman Hollerith. . • This machine was used by American Department of Census to compile their data . an American fabricated the dream of Charles Babbage. • And were able to complete compilation in 3 years which earlier used to take around 10 years.

A. • This was the first operational general purpose computer. .Mark-I • Prof. It was the 1st machine which could perform according to pre programmed instructions automatically without manual interference. constructed in 1943 an electromechanical computer named Mark-I • It could multiply two 10 digit number in 5 seconds.S. Howard Aiken in U.

Each phase of development is characterized by type of switching circuits it utilizes. . • Each phase of computer development is known as separate generation of computers.The Generation of Modern Computer • The term computer Generation is used in relation to the hardware of computers.

. • The Van Neumann architecture is based on three key concepts.Stored Program Computer • Most computers today use the idea of stored program computer that was proposed by Dr. John Von Neumann in 1945.

from one instruction to the next unless modified explicitly. . • The memory contents are addressable by locations.e.Von Neumann Architecture • Data & instructions are stored in a single read-write memory. • Execution takes place in a sequential fashion i.

The First Generation Computers (1949-55) .

Key Features of First Generation Computers • • • • • Used vacuum tubes Big and clumsy computers Electricity consumption high Electric failure occurred regularly Large air conditioners were necessary (computers generated heat) • Programming in machine language .

Examples of First Generation Computers • • • • ENIAC EDVAC EDSAC UNIVAC-I .

The Second Generation Computers (1956-65) .

Key Features of Second Generation Computers Transistor replaced vaccum tubes Computer became small Generated less heat Electricity consumption lower More reliable Faster First operating systems used Programming in machine language as well as assembly language • Core memory developed • Magnetic tapes and disks used. • • • • • • • • .

Examples of Second Generation Computers • • • • • • IBM 1401 IBM 1620 IBM 7094 CDC 1604 CDC 3600 UNIVAC 1108 .

The Third Generation Computers (1966-75) .

Key Features of Third Generation Computers • Integrated circuits developed • Computers smaller. faster and more reliable • Power consumption lower • High level languages appeared .

Examples of Third Generation Computers • • • • • • • IBM-360 SERIES ICL-1900 SERIES IBM-370/168 ICL-2900 HONEYWELL MODEL 316 HONEYWELL 6000 SERIES SOME MINI COMPUTERS DEVELOPED DURING THIS PHASE ARE » ICL-2903 BY INTERNATIONAL COMPUTERS LIMITED » CDC-1700 BY CONTROL DATA CORPORATION » PDP-11/45 BY PERSONAL DATA PROCESSOR .

THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS ARE USED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS • • • • • EDUCATION SURVEY SMALL BUSINESSES ESTIMATION ANALYSIS ETC ALONG WITH THEIR PREVIUS USAGE AREAS I.E SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING .

THE FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS (1976.PRESENT) .

Types of Computers .

1. . most people relate the term with systems that run the Windows operating system. While a Mac is a PC. PC • The personal computer (PC) defines a computer designed for general use by a single person. PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses.

http://www. storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren.paramounttraining.2. Desktop A PC that is not designed for portability is a desktop computer. The expectation with desktop systems are that you will set the computer up in a permanent location. Most desktops offer more power.jpg .com.au/stor age/ComputerWorkshop.

processor. http://blog.jpg . a pointing device or trackball. laptops are portable computers that integrate the display. keyboard. memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.loaz. Laptop Also called notebooks.3.com/media/blogs/timw ang/mini-laptop-fujitsu-P7230.

4.ca/sartechnology/PDA6. very lightweight with a reasonable battery life. PDA http://sartechnology.jpg Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input. PDAs are typically smaller than a paperback novel. A slightly larger and heavier version of the PDA is the handheld computer. .

5. such as 3D Graphics or game development. . Work Station The fifth type of computer is a workstation. additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task. A workstation is simply a desktop computer that has a more powerful processor.

com/2369/2084311380_ 0906fd827d_o. Servers usually have powerful processors. The next type of computer can fill an entire room. http://farm3. lots of memory and large hard drives.static.6.flickr.jpg . Server A computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network.

nz/images/news/IBMSystemz 10mainframe. Mainframe In the early days of computing. the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server.geekzone.co. particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.jpg . mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor! As the size of computers has diminished while the power has increased. You'll still hear the term used. http://www.7.

minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now.8. Mini computer Another term rarely used anymore. .

jpg . The best known supercomputers are built by Cray Supercomputers.wordpress. http://huehueteotl. Although some supercomputers are single computer systems. most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system.9. Super Computer This type of computer usually costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars.files.com/2007/04/supercomputer.

cell phones. database.10. common computer applications (e-mail. http://gtresearchnews. Essentially. Wearable Computer The latest trend in computing is wearable computers.gatech. calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches.edu/images/fast2_b.jpg . visors and even clothing! For more information see these articles on computer clothing. multimedia. smart watches and fabric PCs.

Optical computers • current research in computer architecture includes much work on the design of computers which use light beams to perform computation. these machines should be smaller. faster and cooler than current electronic machines .

Biological computers • computers based on DNA: problems are encoded on strands of DNA which are mixed in solution and react to form DNA-coded answers .

Analog computers are very rare today . More complicated to build than digital computers 3. Analog computers measure the continuous change in something – – – Current in a wire Movement of the tide Rate at which a wheel turns 2.ANALOG COMPUTER 1.

Built of switches that are either on or off – – – Can not have values in-between 0 or 1 like the analog computer 1 turns the switch on 0 turns the switch off 3.DIGITAL COMPUTERS 1. Almost all computers built today are digital computers . Use discrete numbers (whole digits) to control the electrical circuits 2.

Used vacuum tubes 3.First Generation . Very large machines • special rooms to house them with air conditioning • specially trained technicians to run & maintain .Vacuum Tubes .000 additions per second • Had main memory 100 bytes to 2 kilobytes 2.000 to 16. From 1946 to 1956 • did from 2.

one-tenth the price of a 1st Generation 4.3 megabytes Contained in four cabinets about 6 feet high by 4 feet wide.000.Transistors 1. Smaller. each weighing 250 pounds 3. From 1959 to around 1965 2. faster.000 operations/s main memory 6 kilobytes to 1.000 to 3. and more reliable     used transistors 6. become common in larger businesses and universities .

000 operations per second Cost about one-tenth the amount of second generation computers 4. some can fit on desktops Can do 100. Smaller. Form 1965 to around 1972 2. faster.000. Computers become very common in medium to large businesses . Used integrated circuits – many transistors on one piece of silicon 3. more reliable.000 to 400. and lower in price – – – Size of a stove or refrigerator.Circuits 1.

000.Microprocessors 1. smaller. the amount of third generation 4. From 1972 until now 2. more reliable.000 to 1. and lower in price Cost one-tenth.000 operations/second 3. faster. very common in homes and business . Used large scale to very large scale integrated circuits – – Put more than one IC on a silicon chip Can do more than one function – – – Size of a television or much smaller Can do 500.000. or less.

Most likely the following will happen to computer technology – – – It will become lower in price Computers will become smaller and faster Computers will have larger memories and more storage space 2.Future Computer Generations 1. Computers will become an integral part of everyone's life .

COMPUTER TYPES CRITERIA OF CLASSIFICATION HISTORY TWO BASIC KINDS GENERATION MANUFACTURER WIDELY ACCEPTED CLASSIFICATION .

Wearable. PC. Palmtop. . Desktop. Laptop. server. midrange server (minicomputer).WIDELY ACCEPTED WAYS • SIZE (Early days): mainframe. microcomputer. • POWER: Supercomputer. enterprise server (mainframe). minicomputer. • SIZE (Now): Floortop.

. • PCs were first known as microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in use by most businesses.PC • computer designed for general use by a single person.

storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren.DESKTOP • A PC that is not designed for portability. • you will set the computer up in a permanent location. . • Most desktops offer more power.

memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book. • Laptop are portable computers that integrate the display. processor.Laptop • Also called notebooks. a pointing device or trackball. . keyboard.

• usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input. • A slightly larger and heavier version of the palmtop is the handheld computer.Palmtop • More commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) • palmtops are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. .

Workstation • A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor. additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task. . such as 3D Graphics or game development.

mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor! • the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. • the term still used. .Mainframe • In the early days of computing. particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.

Minicomputer • term rarely used anymore. . • Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now. minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers).

• Most are comprised of multiple high performance computers working in parallel as a single system. • Used for military purposes or in large companies .Supercomputer • Costs hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars.

common computer applications (e-mail. multimedia. database. visors and even clothing! . cell phones.Wearable • The latest trend in computing • Essentially. calendar/scheduler) are integrated into watches.

.

TYPES OF COMPUTER .

*800 MB Adobe’s Photoshop .005=3.45+.*1.5 GB Full install of MS Office 2003 . Average of 500KB each In GB: 1.*280MB Have room to store my photo album with 150 pictures ..8+.*450 MB Dream Weaver ..What software you need will affect you decision of what hardware to buy…For example how much hard drive space will you need with the following requirements? • • • • • Windows XP Professional Operating System .78 .28+150*.5+.

Now) •Accessories .Hardware Development •First Generation (1946-1959) •Second Generation (1960-1965) •Third Generation (1966-1975) •Fourth Generation (1975 .

Software Development •System Software –Operating Systems –Utility Programs –Language Translators .

Operating System is just like a brain on human body which organize all process inside a human body OS/360 UNIX CP/M OS/2 OS/400 WINDOWS MS-DOS .Operating System Without operating system. a software application or a program language software can‘t communicate with the computer.

Handle Interrupts 6. Maintain Usage Records . Schedule Jobs. 2. Manage Hardware and Software Resources 3.There are six basic functions that an operating system can perform : 1. Enable Multiple User Resource Sharing 5. Maintain Systems Security 4.

sort the content of files. erase files. monitor performance of the system.Utility Programs Utilities enable users to copy files. merge two or more files together. and event control the flow data between users and computers. . and prepare removeable storage mediafor use.Other utilities allow the computer operations manager to recover lost or bad files.

RPG. Algol. Pascal. . C. etc. Basic. Prolog. Lisp. Matlab.Language Programming :There are three different kind of Language programming: • Machine Language • Low level Language Assembler • High Level Language Fortran. Cobol.

• Machine Language – A computer's native language. that are to take part. containing instructions that are binary numbers. compute the cost of an item cost = price + tax . Example. – A machine language instruction conveys the operation to performed and the operands. – It is difficult for human to learn and use. or memory cells. – Instructions to the control unit must be expressed in terms of the machine language of the particular computer.

Terminate execution Sample Instruction Set . 111 Halt Copy the value of the memory cell addressed into the accumulator Copy the value of the accumulator into the word addressed Replace the present value of the accumulator with the sum of its present value and the value of the memory cell addressed..Operation Code Operation Meaning 001 Load 010 Store 011 Add ..

Later be converted into machine code by program's translator called assemblers .Example. adds to number and store in another variable LOAD A ADD B STORE C .• Assembly Language .Is programming language in English-like abbreviations .

Has a language standard that describe the grammatical form (syntax) of the language . C.• High-Level Language . . COBOL. cost = price + tax.A programming language whose instructions resemble every day language . LISP. FORTRAN. Java .Example. C++.Every high-level language instruction must conform to the syntax rules specified in the language standard. BASIC. . PASCAL.Example of C++ code.

Topic • History of computer development • Computer generation • Programming language .

Development Charles Babbage • Design first modern computer • Invent – difference engine – Analytical Engine (main part of copmuter system) .

Development
Count Ada Lovelace
• First programmer
• Assist in developing instruction for
Babbage device computation

Development
Herman Hollerith
• Develop first computer using
electrical power
• Founder of electronic punch card

Development
John V. Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
• Build first electronically operated
digital computer
• ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)

Development UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Computer) • First generation comercial computer • For scientific and comercial applications • Eckert & Mauchly send first UNIVAC to U.S Census Bureau in 1951. .

Development .

Development UNIVAC characteristic • Easier to use compared to ENIAC • Less vacuum tube (more reliable) • Stored program found by John Von Neumann • General purpose • Use machine language .

Development Apple Computer • Found by Steve Jobbs dan & Steve Wozniak in 1977 • First computer with easy to use screen and keyboard .

Development .

slow.Computer Generation First Generation • • • • • • • 1940’s – early 1950’s Vacuum tube as switch Bulky. MARK1. easily heated Always fail ABC. ENIAC. UNIVAC Stored program concept (Von Neumann) Assembly Language .

cheap The usage of high level language begins DEC-PDP-1 . more reliable.Computer Generation Second Generation • • • • • • 1950’s – mid 1960 transistor as switch Smaller and faster (x1000) Less heat.

Computer Generation Third Generation • • • • Late 1960’s Silicon chip as switch Smaller and faster (x1000) More reliable .

Computer Generation Fourth Generation • 1970’s –current • Single processor microchip as switch • Very low cost and afforded by individual .

140k/ w punch card .HISTORY AND COMPUTER REVOLUTION Generati on Electronic circuit Main Memory Secondary Memory 1 Vacuum Tube Magnetic reel -Magnetic reel Magnetic tape 2 transistor 3 Integrated circuit Magnetic core Magnetic core 4 Semiconduct or circuit Output Computer Size -paper tape punch card . Magnetic tape. audio response Typewriter size .printer Room size 30 ton.18000 vacuum tube.printer Drawer size punch card punch card Magnetic tape .1500 kps.Magnetic disk Magnetic tape Magnetic disk microprocesso r Input -magnetic disk -diskette -magnetic wave -keyboard. video display.Magneti c disk keyboard Optical recognition Light pen Graphic tablet Table size -printer video display -printer.

Programming Language Generatio Programming Language n 1 Machine Language 2 Assembly Language 3 High Level Language 4 Very High Level Language Natural Language 5 .

Programming Language Assembly language • Low level • Use mnemonic code. abbreviation • Program written in this language is translated by assembler into machine language program code before execution .

Programming Language High Level Language • Exist 1960 • Similar to English • Program written in this language is able to overcome more complex problem/task • Translator is known as compiler which change program to machine language before execution • Commercial application such as C/C++ .

Example of High Level Language for Displaying “Hello World” • • • • • Cobol : DISPLAY “Hello World” Basic : PRINT “Hello World” C : printf (“Hello World”). Java : System.out.println(“Hello World”) C++ : cout<< “Hello World” .

Programming Language Very High Level Language • Known as 4GL • Program is written shorthand form • Able to handle hundreds instruction lines (3rd generation language can handle few lines only) • Example: Query Language .

Programming Language Natural Language • Similar to spoken English Language • Natural Language translate human instruction into codes that understandable by computer • Also known as knowledge base language • Interact with knowledge base .

UNIT OF MEMORY .