2009-2010

PHYSIOLOGY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE

CHARACTERISTICS

1. 2. 3. 4.

EXCITABILITY CONTRACTILITY EXTENSIBILITY ELASTICITY

FUNCTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

PRODUCE MOVEMENT MAINTAIN POSTURE STABILIZE JOINTS GENERATE HEAT MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES WITHIN THE BODY

SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGAN
A WHOLE MUSCLE  CONSISTS OF A LARGE  NUMBER OF MUSCLE FIBERS (CELLS) , PLUS  CONNECTIVE  TISSUE WRAPPINGS,  BLOOD VESSELS,  AND NERVE FIBERS.

SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGAN
THE OUTERMOST LAYER, WHICH ENCIRCLES THE WHOLE MUSCLE ORGAN, IS THE EPIMYSIUM.IT IS COMPOSED OF IRREGULAR CONNTECTIVE TISSUE.

SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGAN
THE NEXT LAYER IS THE PERIMYSIUM. IT

SURROUNDS GROUPS OF 10 TO 200 MUSCLE FIBERS, SEPARATING THEM INTO BUNDLES CALLED FASCICLES.

SKELETAL MUSCLE ORGAN
THE DEEPEST

LAYER IS THE ENDOMYSIUM. IT SURROUNDS EACH MUSCLE FIBER SEPARATING ONE FROM ANOTHER. IT IS COMPOSED OF LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY

SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY

A SARCOMERE IS THE FUNCTIONAL CONTRACTILE UNIT OF SKELETAL MUSCLE. IT CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF PROTEINS.

SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
PROTEINS FOUND IN SARCOMERE 1. CONTRACTILE PROTEINS 2. REGULATORY PROTEINS 3. STRUCTURAL PROTEINS

SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY

CONTRACTILE PROTEINS GENERATE FORCE DURING CONTRACTION. THE TWO CONTRACTILE PROTEINS ARE ACTIN AND MYOSIN.

SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY

REGULARTORY PROTEINS HELP TO SWITCH THE CONTRACTION PROCESS ON AND OFF. THE TWO REGULATORY PROTEINS ARE TROPOMYOSIN AND TROPONIN.

MYOSIN

MYOSIN

ACTIN, TROPOMYSOIN, TROPONIN

SARCOMERE

SARCOMERE

SARCOMERE

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

CONSISTS OF:
1. THE AXONAL TERMINAL OF A SOMATIC MOTOR NEURON. 2. SYNAPTIC CLEFT 3. THE MOTOR END PLATE.

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

MOTOR UNIT
 A MOTOR UNIT IS A

SOMATIC MOTOR NEURON AND ALL OF THE MUSCULE CELLS IT INNERVATES.
THE NUMBER OF

MUSCLE FIBERS PER MOTOR UNIT MAY BE AS HIGH AS SEVERAL HUNDRED OR A FEW AS FOUR.

MOTOR UNIT

AS A RESULT, STIMULATION OF A SINGLE MOTOR UNIT CAUSES A WEAK CONTRACTION OF THE ENTIRE MUSCLE, OR A NUMBER OF MOTOR UNITS MAY CAUSE A STRONG CONTRACTION OF THE ENTIRE MUSCLE.

ENERGY FOR CONTRACTION

1. ATP 2. CREATINE PHOSPHATE 3. GLYCOLYSIS 4. AEROBIC CELLULAR RESPIRATION

MUSCLE FATIGUE
TRUE MUSCLE FATIGUE IS THE RESULT OF BUILD UP OF ACIDIC COMPOUNDS, MAINLY LACTIC ACID, A REDUCTION IN THE AMOUNT OF ATP, AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCES.

REPLACING THE OXYGEN DEBT
1. CONVERTING LACTIC ACID INTO PYRUVIC ACID. 2. RESYNTHESIZING ATP. 3. RESYNTHESIZING CREATINE PHOSPHATE 4. REPLACING GLYCOGEN STORES. 5. REOXYGENATING MYOGLOBIN.

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