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Development of TiC reinforced low modulus

-Ti composite with improved mechanical

properties for biomedical applications
Anup Dalal
(M. Tech.)
Under the guidance of
Prof. M. Chakraborty / Prof.S.B.Singh

Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Materials used for medical applications
Biological materials
Polymers and fibers
Metallic materials (SS, Co-Cr alloy, Ti and its
alloys)- sufficient strength and toughness, which
are particularly important for load-bearing
applications such as total joint replacements

Ti and its alloys


high strength to density ratio

Good biocompatibility and corrosion
low elastic modulus
Poor tribological properties
high modulus of elasticity of the titanium alloys
compared with the bone

Objective of the work

Preparation of TiC/ Ti-alloy composite by melting and casting


Using low modulus Ti-alloy as matrix to minimize the stress

shielding effect

Reinforcing the matrix of Ti-alloy with TiC and controlling

/modification of the morphology of TiC in order to improve the
wear properties

Characterization of the microstructure

Study of the mechanical properties and wear resistance

Effect of Carbon Source on Morphology of


Microstructure of as cast 10 vol.%TiC/ Ti-alloy with (a)TiC powder and

(b)carbon powder as carbon sources (DT: dendritic TiC; ET: eutectic TiC)

Effect of Carbon Source on Morphology of


Differences in TiC morphology caused by different carbon sources are

inferred to be generated in the course of dissolutionprecipitation of TiC.

The smaller atomic clusters of TiC mostly precipitate as the eutectic TiC at a
eutectic temperature which is lower than the primary temperature.

The primary TiC phase is in the majority of TiC in the composite with TiC
powder as the carbon source, and the relative content of eutectic TiC phase
is high when carbon powder is used as the carbon source.

Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of


Microstructures of suck casting 10 vol.%TiC/ Ti-alloy with a )TiC powder

b) carbon powder as carbon sources

Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiC

The cooling rate of copper mould suction casting is usually above
102K/s much faster than the common arc melting on a copper
High cooling rate in copper mould decreases the growth time of TiC
phase, which causes the refinement of the dendritic and eutectic TiC
Primary TiC particles cross-section of TiC decreases from about 5 to
2 m (TiC powder) very fine and dispersed only about 11.5 m
(carbon source)

Effect of Alloying Elements on Morphology

of TiC

a) 10 vol.%TiC/ Ti-alloy 0.3Ni composite; b) 10 vol.%TiC/ Ti-alloy 0.3Sn


Effect of Alloying Elements on Morphology

of TiC
Primary TiC dendrites are well developed, and the length of some
primary dendrite arms is even above 100 m when Ni is added.
Small amount of Sn is added shows that there are few dendritic TiC
and most TiC particles are fine and granular.
Ni in the composite increases the crystallisation interval of the TiC
phase and the constitutional supercooling at the forefront of the
solid/liquid interface.

IN TiC particles are small and faceted. The <001> directions are
the main growth directions of TiC Once the <001> directions are
inhibited, the growth rate of TiC would slow down.

Effect of Heat Treatment on Morphology of


a) as cast; b) heat treated at 1050oC for 4 h; c) heat treated at 1050oC for 8 h;

d) heat treated at 1050oC for 24 h

TiC powder is used as the carbon source of the composites, primary
TiC accounts for the majority of TiC reinforcements. When carbon
powder is used as the carbon source, eutectic TiC accounts for the
majority and the dendritic growth of primary TiC is restrained.
Increasing the cooling rate can reduce the size of TiC as indicated by
copper mould suck casting. Fine and dispersed TiC particles are
easier to be produce in the composite with carbon powder as the
carbon source.

After the addition of 0.3 wt%Ni, branches of dendritic TiC in

the TiC/ Ti-alloy composite become more developed.
However, the addition of Sn restrains the growth of TiC on
solidification, and causes the TiC particles to become fine and
dispersed in the matrix.
Suitable heat treatment at high temperature can modify the
morphology of TiC. Both dendritic and eutectic TiC can be
dissolved and gradually spheroidised with increasing holding
time at 1050OC.

Z. J. Wei, L. Cao, H. W. Wang and C. M. Zou ,
Modification and control of TiC morphology by various
ways in arc melted TiC/Ti6Al4V composites,
Materials Science and Technology, 2011, 27,( 2), 556-561.