Kriging interpolations in statistics.
used in mineral exploration.

© All Rights Reserved

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Kriging interpolations in statistics.
used in mineral exploration.

© All Rights Reserved

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From

Sampled Point Data

Assumes a continuousData

surface that is sampled

Interpolation

Estimating the attribute values of locations that

are within the range of available data using

known data values

Extrapolation

Estimating the attribute values of locations

outside the range of available data using known

data values

Data

Interpolation

Estimating a point

here: interpolation

Sample

data

Data

Extrapolation

Sample

data

Estimating a point

here: extrapolation

Data

Sampling Strategies for Interpolation

Regular Sampling

Random Sampling

Data

Linear Interpolation

If

Sample

elevation data

A = 8 feet and

B = 4 feet

then

C = (8 + 4) / 2 = 6 feet

B

Elevation profile

Data

Non-Linear Interpolation

Sample

elevation data

Often results in a

more realistic

interpolation but

estimating missing

data values is more

complex

A

C

B

Elevation profile

Data

Global Interpolation

unsampled location

Sample

data

Data

Local Interpolation

an unsampled location

Sample

data

Uses a local neighborhood to

estimate value, i.e. closest n

number of points, or within a

given search radius

Trend Surface

Trend Surface

Global method

Inexact

Can be linear or non-linear

predicting a z elevation value [dependent

variable] with x and y location values

[independent variables]

Trend Surface

In one dimension: z varies as a linear function of x

z = b0 + b1x + e

Trend Surface

In two dimensions: z varies as a linear function of x and y

z

z = b0 + b1x + b2y + e

Trend Surface

(IDW)

Local method

Exact

Can be linear or non-linear

The weight (influence) of a sampled

data value is inversely proportional to

its distance from the estimated value

(Example)

z ( x, y )

1

d

n

i 1

or

i 1

z ( x, y ) z 1

with

100

4

3

200

160

IDW:

Closest 3

neighbors,

r=2

(Example)

A

B

C

Weights

1 / (42) = .0625

1 / (32) = .1111

1 / (22) = .2500

A = 100

4

3

2

C = 200

B = 160

(Example)

A

B

C

Weights

1 / (42) = .0625

1 / (32) = .1111

1 / (22) = .2500

Total = .4236

Weights * Value

.0625 * 100 =

6.25 .1111 * 160 =

17.76 .2500 * 200 =

50.00

A = 100

74.01 / .4236 = 175

4

3

2

C = 200

B = 160

Geostatistics

Geostatistics

centered on estimating changes in ore grade within a

mine.

The principles have been applied to a variety of areas in

geology and other scientific disciplines.

A unique aspect of geostatistics is the use of

regionalized variables which are variables that fall

between random variables and completely deterministic

variables.

Geostatistics

with geographical distribution (e.g.

elevation of ground surface).

Geostatistics

Therefore, unknown values must be estimated

from data taken at specific locations that can be

sampled.

The size, shape, orientation, and spatial

arrangement of the sample locations are termed

the support and influence the capability to predict

the unknown samples.

Semivariance

Semivariance

property called the semivariance to express

the degree of relationship between points on a

surface.

possible points spaced a constant distance apart.

Semivariance is a measure of the degree of

spatial dependence between samples (elevation(

Semivariance

semivariance between points depends on the

distance between the points. A smaller distance

yields a smaller semivariance and a larger

distance results in a larger semivariance.

(Regularly Spaced PointsRegularly Spaced Points(

semivariance can be estimated for distances that are

multiple of (d) (Simple form):

1

( h)

(z z )

2N

Nh

i 1

ih

Semivariance

1

( h)

(z z )

2N

Nh

i 1

ih

taken at location i ,

Zi+h is another measurement taken h intervals

away d

Nh is number of separating distance = number of

points Lag (if the points are located in a single

profile)

(Irregularly Spaced PointsRegularly Spaced Points(

Directional variograms is defines the spatial variation

among points separated by space lag h.

The difference from the omnidirectional variograms is that

h is a vector rather than a scalar. For example, if

d={d1,d2}, then each pair of compared samples should be

separated in E-W direction and in S-N direction.

(Irregularly Spaced PointsRegularly Spaced Points(

which are separated by exactly the same lag vector [d].

The set of all possible lag vectors is usually partitioned into

classes

Variogram

Variogram

distance from a point is referred to as a

semivariogram or variogram.

Variogram

because there are no differences between points that are

compared to themselves.

However, as points are compared to increasingly distant

points, the semivariance increases.

Variogram

point on the surface is related to the value at another point.

The range defines the maximum neighborhood over which

control points should be selected to estimate a grid node.

Variogram (Models(

spherical model.

C is called the sill of the semi-variogram.

3h 1h

C

2a 2a

C

( h)

where h a

where h a

Variogram (Models(

Exponential Model

( h) C 1 e

same range and sill

h a

sill and the same initial slope

Kriging

Interpolation

Kriging Interpolation

engineer, D. G. Krige, who first developed the

method.

estimates of the surface at the grid nodes.

Kriging Interpolation

measures of error and uncertainty when determining

estimations.

In the kriging method, every known data value and

every missing data value has an associated variance. If

C is constant (i.e. known value exactly), its variance

is zero.

weights are assigned to known values in order to

calculate unknown ones. Since the variogram

changes with distance, the weights depend on the

known sample distribution.

Ordinary Kriging

Ordinary Kriging

kriging.

dimensionless points, e.g. elevation contour

plots.

assumed to be stationary.

In our case Z, at point p, Ze (p) to be calculated

using a weighted average of the known values

or control points:

z ( p) w z ( p )

e

This estimated value will most likely differ from the actual

value at point p, Za(p), and this difference is called the

estimation error:

z ( p) z ( p)

p

estimation sum to one, then the estimated value

is said to be unbiased. The scatter of the

estimates about the true value is termed the

error or estimation variance,

n

2

z

[ z

i 1

( pi ) z a ( pi )]

n

2

i

produce the minimum estimation error .

Optimal weights, those that produce unbiased

estimates and have a minimum estimation variance, are

obtained by solving a set of simultaneous equations .

w1 (h21 ) w2 (h22 ) w3 (h23 ) (h2 p )

w1 (h31 ) w2 (h32 ) w3 (h33 ) (h3 p )

w1 w2 w3 1

multiplier

w1 (h21 ) w2 (h22 ) w3 (h23 ) (h2 p )

w1 (h31 ) w2 (h32 ) w3 (h33 ) (h3 p )

w1 w2 w3 1

(h ) (h ) (h ) 1 w (h )

(h ) (h ) (h ) 1 w (h )

(h ) (h ) (h ) 1 w (h )

1

1

0 1

1

11

12

13

1p

21

21

23

2p

31

32

33

3p

can be made by

z e ( p) w1 z1 w2 z 2 w3 z 3

2

z

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