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Interpolating a Surface

From
Sampled Point Data

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Assumes a continuousData
surface that is sampled
Interpolation
Estimating the attribute values of locations that
are within the range of available data using
known data values
Extrapolation
Estimating the attribute values of locations
outside the range of available data using known
data values

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Data

Interpolation

Estimating a point
here: interpolation
Sample
data

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Data

Extrapolation

Sample
data
Estimating a point
here: extrapolation

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Data
Sampling Strategies for Interpolation

Regular Sampling

Random Sampling

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Data

Linear Interpolation

If

Sample
elevation data

A = 8 feet and
B = 4 feet

then

C = (8 + 4) / 2 = 6 feet
B

Elevation profile

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Data

Non-Linear Interpolation
Sample
elevation data

Often results in a
more realistic
interpolation but
estimating missing
data values is more
complex

A
C
B
Elevation profile

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Data

Global Interpolation

Uses all known sample points to estimate a value at an


unsampled location
Sample
data

Interpolating a Surface From Sampled Point


Data

Local Interpolation

Uses a neighborhood of sample points to estimate a value at


an unsampled location
Sample
data
Uses a local neighborhood to
estimate value, i.e. closest n
number of points, or within a
given search radius

Trend Surface

Trend Surface
Global method
Inexact
Can be linear or non-linear
predicting a z elevation value [dependent
variable] with x and y location values
[independent variables]

Trend Surface

1st Order Trend Surface


In one dimension: z varies as a linear function of x

z = b0 + b1x + e

Trend Surface

1st Order Trend Surface


In two dimensions: z varies as a linear function of x and y
z

z = b0 + b1x + b2y + e

Trend Surface

Inverse Distance Weighted


(IDW)

Inverse Distance Weighted


Local method
Exact
Can be linear or non-linear
The weight (influence) of a sampled
data value is inversely proportional to
its distance from the estimated value

Inverse Distance Weighted


(Example)

z ( x, y )
1

d
n

i 1

or

i 1

z ( x, y ) z 1
with

100
4
3
200

160

IDW:
Closest 3
neighbors,
r=2

Inverse Distance Weighted


(Example)
A
B
C

Weights
1 / (42) = .0625
1 / (32) = .1111
1 / (22) = .2500
A = 100
4
3
2
C = 200

B = 160

Inverse Distance Weighted


(Example)
A
B
C

Weights
1 / (42) = .0625
1 / (32) = .1111
1 / (22) = .2500
Total = .4236

Weights * Value
.0625 * 100 =
6.25 .1111 * 160 =
17.76 .2500 * 200 =
50.00
A = 100

6.25 +17.76 + 50.00 = 74.01


74.01 / .4236 = 175

4
3
2
C = 200

B = 160

Geostatistics

Geostatistics

Geostatistics:The original purpose of geostatistics


centered on estimating changes in ore grade within a
mine.
The principles have been applied to a variety of areas in
geology and other scientific disciplines.
A unique aspect of geostatistics is the use of
regionalized variables which are variables that fall
between random variables and completely deterministic
variables.

Geostatistics

Regionalized variables describe phenomena


with geographical distribution (e.g.
elevation of ground surface).

The phenomenon exhibit spatial continuity.

Geostatistics

It is notalways possible to sample every location.


Therefore, unknown values must be estimated
from data taken at specific locations that can be
sampled.
The size, shape, orientation, and spatial
arrangement of the sample locations are termed
the support and influence the capability to predict
the unknown samples.

Semivariance

Semivariance

Regionalized variable theory uses a related


property called the semivariance to express
the degree of relationship between points on a
surface.

The semivariance is simply half the

variance of the differences between all


possible points spaced a constant distance apart.
Semivariance is a measure of the degree of
spatial dependence between samples (elevation(

Semivariance

semivariance :The magnitude of the


semivariance between points depends on the
distance between the points. A smaller distance
yields a smaller semivariance and a larger
distance results in a larger semivariance.

Calculating the Semivariance


(Regularly Spaced PointsRegularly Spaced Points(

Consider regularly spaced points distance (d) apart, the


semivariance can be estimated for distances that are
multiple of (d) (Simple form):

1
( h)
(z z )
2N
Nh

i 1

ih

Semivariance

1
( h)
(z z )
2N
Nh

i 1

ih

Zi is the measurement of a regionalized variable


taken at location i ,
Zi+h is another measurement taken h intervals
away d
Nh is number of separating distance = number of
points Lag (if the points are located in a single
profile)

Calculating the Semivariance


(Irregularly Spaced PointsRegularly Spaced Points(

Here we are going to explore directional variograms.


Directional variograms is defines the spatial variation
among points separated by space lag h.
The difference from the omnidirectional variograms is that
h is a vector rather than a scalar. For example, if
d={d1,d2}, then each pair of compared samples should be
separated in E-W direction and in S-N direction.

Calculating the Semivariance


(Irregularly Spaced PointsRegularly Spaced Points(

In practice, it is difficult to find enough sample points


which are separated by exactly the same lag vector [d].
The set of all possible lag vectors is usually partitioned into
classes

Variogram

Variogram

The plot of the semivariances as a function of


distance from a point is referred to as a
semivariogram or variogram.

Variogram

The semivariance at a distance d = 0 should be zero,


because there are no differences between points that are
compared to themselves.
However, as points are compared to increasingly distant
points, the semivariance increases.

Variogram

The range is the greatest distance over which the value at a


point on the surface is related to the value at another point.
The range defines the maximum neighborhood over which
control points should be selected to estimate a grid node.

Variogram (Models(

It is a model semi-variogram and is usually called the


spherical model.

a is called the range of influence of a sample.


C is called the sill of the semi-variogram.

3h 1h
C

2a 2a
C

( h)

where h a
where h a

Variogram (Models(
Exponential Model

( h) C 1 e

spherical and exponential with the


same range and sill

h a

spherical and exponential with the same


sill and the same initial slope

Kriging
Interpolation

Kriging Interpolation

Kriging is named after the South African


engineer, D. G. Krige, who first developed the
method.

Kriging uses the semivariogram, in calculating


estimates of the surface at the grid nodes.

Kriging Interpolation

The procedures involved in kriging incorporate


measures of error and uncertainty when determining
estimations.
In the kriging method, every known data value and
every missing data value has an associated variance. If
C is constant (i.e. known value exactly), its variance
is zero.

Based on the semivariogram used, optimal


weights are assigned to known values in order to
calculate unknown ones. Since the variogram
changes with distance, the weights depend on the
known sample distribution.

Ordinary Kriging

Ordinary Kriging

Ordinary kriging is the simplest form of


kriging.

It uses dimensionless points to estimate other


dimensionless points, e.g. elevation contour
plots.

In Ordinary kriging, the regionalized variable is


assumed to be stationary.

Punctual (Ordinary) Kriging


In our case Z, at point p, Ze (p) to be calculated
using a weighted average of the known values
or control points:

z ( p) w z ( p )
e

This estimated value will most likely differ from the actual
value at point p, Za(p), and this difference is called the
estimation error:

z ( p) z ( p)
p

Punctual (Ordinary) Kriging

If no drift exists and the weights used in the


estimation sum to one, then the estimated value
is said to be unbiased. The scatter of the
estimates about the true value is termed the
error or estimation variance,
n


2
z

[ z
i 1

( pi ) z a ( pi )]
n

2
i

Punctual (Ordinary) Kriging

kriging tries to choose the optimal weights that


produce the minimum estimation error .
Optimal weights, those that produce unbiased
estimates and have a minimum estimation variance, are
obtained by solving a set of simultaneous equations .

w1 (h11 ) w2 (h12 ) w3 (h13 ) (h1 p )


w1 (h21 ) w2 (h22 ) w3 (h23 ) (h2 p )
w1 (h31 ) w2 (h32 ) w3 (h33 ) (h3 p )
w1 w2 w3 1

Punctual (Ordinary) Kriging

A fourth variable is introduced called the Lagrange


multiplier

w1 (h11 ) w2 (h12 ) w3 (h13 ) (h1 p )


w1 (h21 ) w2 (h22 ) w3 (h23 ) (h2 p )
w1 (h31 ) w2 (h32 ) w3 (h33 ) (h3 p )
w1 w2 w3 1
(h ) (h ) (h ) 1 w (h )
(h ) (h ) (h ) 1 w (h )

(h ) (h ) (h ) 1 w (h )

1
1
0 1
1
11

12

13

1p

21

21

23

2p

31

32

33

3p

Punctual (Ordinary) Kriging

Once the individual weights are known, an estimation


can be made by

z e ( p) w1 z1 w2 z 2 w3 z 3

And an estimation variance can be calculated by

w1 (h1 p ) w2 (h21 p ) w13 (h3 p )


2
z