# Basic electronics

Optical interfaces: Detect and control

Ohm’s law
Current = voltage / resistance • I=V/R • V=IxR Definitions • Voltage = potential energy / unit charge, units = Volts • Current = charge flow rate, units = Amps • Resistance = friction, units = Ohms Example • Voltage drop when current flows through resistor • V1 - V2 = I R

V1 R V2 I

Schematics
• • Symbols represent circuit elements Lines are wires

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Battery

Sample circuit

V Resistor

+

I

R

Ground

Ground voltage defined = 0

Parallel and series resistors
Series • same current flows through all Parallel • save voltage across all

Series circuit V = R1 I + R2 I = Reff I Reff = R1 + R2 R1
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Parallel circuit I = V/R1 + V/R2 = V/Reff 1/Reff = 1/R1 + 1/R2 I V
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V

I R2 I2
Note: these points are connected together

R1

I1

R2

Resistive voltage divider
• Series resistor circuit • Reduce input voltage to desired level • Advantages: • Disadvantage:
– simple and accurate – complex circuit can use single voltage source – dissipates power – easy to overload – need Rload << R2

Resistive divider I = Vin /Reff = Vout /R2 Vout = Vin (R2 / (R1 + R2) )

Vin
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I R1

Vout R2
New schematic symbol: external connection

I

Variable voltage divider
• Use potentiometer (= variable resistor) • Most common: constant output resistance

Variable voltage divider Vout = Vin (Rout / (Rvar + Rout ) ) New schematic symbol: potentiometer

I Vin Rvar Rout I

Vout

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Capacitors
Charge = voltage x capacitance • Q=CV • Definitions Charge = integrated current flow , units = Coloumbs = Amp - seconds • I = dQ/dt • Capacitance = storage capacity, units = Farads • Example • • Capacitor charging circuit Time constant = RC = τ

Capacitor charging curve time constant = RC Vin Vout

I V R C
New schematic symbol: capacitor

Vout Q
Capacitor charging circuit V = VR + VC = R dQ/dt + Q/C dQ/dt + Q/RC = V/R Q = C V (1 - exp(-t/RC)) Vout = Vin (1 - exp(-t/RC))

τ = RC t

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AC circuits
• Replace battery with sine (cosine) wave source • V = V0 cos(2 π f t) Definitions • Frequency f = cosine wave frequency, units = Hertz Examples • Resistor response: I = (V0/R) cos(2 π f t) • Capacitor response: Q = CV0 cos(2 π f t)
– – – – I = - 2 π f CV0 sin(2 π f t) Current depends on frequency negative sine wave replaces cosine wave - 90 degree phase shift = lag

Resistive ac circuit
V0 cos(2 π f t) I= (V0/R) cos(2 π f t)

Capacitive ac circuit • 90 degree phase lag
V0 cos(2 π f t)

R

I= - 2 π f CV0 sin(2 π f t)

C

New schematic symbol: AC voltage source

Simplified notation: ac-circuits
• V = V0 cos(2 π f t) = V0 [exp(2 π j f t) + c.c.]/2 • Drop c.c. part and factor of 1/2 • V = V0 exp(2 π j f t) Revisit resistive and capacitive circuits • Resistor response: I = (V0/R) exp(2 π j f t) = V / R = V/ ZR • Capacitor response: I = 2 π j f CV0 exp(2 π j f t) = (2 π j f C) V = V/ ZC Definition: Impedance, Z = effective resistance, units Ohms • Capacitor impedance ZC = 1 / (2 π j f C) • Resistor impedance ZR = R Impedance makes it look like Ohms law applies to capacitive circuits also • Capacitor response I = V / ZC

Explore capacitor circuits
Impedance ZC = 1/ (2 π j f C) • Limit of low frequency f ~ 0
– ZC --> infinity – Capacitor is open circuit at low frequency

• Limit of low frequency f ~ infinity
– ZC --> 0 – Capacitor is short circuit at low frequency

Capacitive ac circuit
V0 cos(2 π f t) I = V/ZC

C

Revisit capacitor charging circuit
Replace C with impedance ZC • Charging circuit looks like voltage divider • Vout = Vin (ZC / (ZR + ZC) ) = Vin / (1 + 2 π j f R C ) Low-pass filter Crossover when f = 1 / 2 π R C = 1 / 2 π τ • lower frequencies Vout ~ Vin = pass band , τ is time constant

• higher frequencies Vout ~ Vin / (2 π j f R C ) = attenuated Capacitor charging circuit = Low-pass filter Vin = V0 cos(2 π
f t)

I R C I

Low-pass filter response • time constant = RC = τ

Vout
log(Vout )
knee f=1/2π τ

logVin Single-pole rolloff 6 dB/octave = 10 dB/decade

log( f )

Inductors
Voltage = rate of voltage change x inductance • V = L dI/dt • Definitions Inductance L = resistance to current change, units = Henrys • Impedance of inductor: ZL = (2 π j f L) Low frequency = short circuit • High frequency = open circuit • Inductors rarely used

Capacitor charging circuit = Low-pass filter Vin = V0 cos(2 π
f t)

High-pass filter response

I R

Vout L
log(Vout )

logVin

New schematic symbol: Inductor

I

f=R/2π j L

log( f )

Capacitor filters circuits
• Can make both low and high pass filters
0

Low-pass filter Vin = V cos(2 π f t) I R C I

Vout

High-pass filter Vin = V cos(2 π f t) I
0

Vout I

C

R

Gain response
logVin

Gain response
logVin

log(Vout )

knee f=1/2π τ

log(Vout )
f=1/2π τ

log( f ) Phase response phase
f=1/2π τ

log( f ) phase

log( f ) Phase response
0 degrees

log( f )
-90 degrees

0 degrees -90 degrees

f=1/2π τ

Summary of schematic symbols
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Battery

Resistor

Potentiometer

AC voltage source

Capacitor

Potentiometer
2-inputs plus center tap

Inductor Ground External connection Non-connecting wires Diode

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Op amp

Color code
Resistor values determined by color Three main bands • •
1st = 1st digit 2nd = 2nd digit – 3rd = # of trailing zeros – Examples – red, brown, black 2 1 no zeros = 21 Ohms – yellow, brown, green – 4 1 5 = 4.1 Mohm – purple, gray, orange – 7 8 3 = 78 kOhms – Capacitors can have 3 numbers – use like three colors –

Color Number black brown red orange yellow green blue violet gray white 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9