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FISIOLOGI

OLAHRAGA
Rahmatina B. Herman
Bagian Fisiologi
Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas
Andalas

Introduction
No other normal stresses that nearly approach
the extreme stresses of heavy exercise
If some of extremes of exercise were continued
for even slightly prolonged periods, they might
easily be lethal
Therefore, Sports Physiology, in the main, is a
discussion of the ultimate limits to which most of
the bodily mechanisms can be stressed
Comparison:
- Extremely high fever approaching the level of
lethality, body metabolism increases to about 100%
- During marathon race, body metabolism increases
to 2000 % above normal

Strength of Muscles in
Exercise
Determined mainly by its size
Maximum contractile force: 3-4
kg/cm2 of muscle cross-sectional
area
The holding strength is 40%
greater than contractile strength

Power of Muscles in
Exercise
Power:
- a measure of the total amount of work that
the muscle performs in a unit of time:
- determined by:
> strength of muscle contraction
> distance of contraction
> number of times it contracts each minute
- measured in kg-m/ minute
- power of 1 kg-m/minute, that is a muscle
> that can lift 1 kg weight to a height of 1 m in
1 min, or
> that can move object laterally against a force
of
1 kg for a distance of 1 m in 1 min

Endurance
Final measures of muscle performance
The efficiency for translation of muscle power
output into athletic performance is often much
less during rapid activity than during less
rapid but sustained activity
Depends on nutritive support for muscle, more
than anything else on the amount of glycogen
that has been stored in muscle before the
period of exercise
A person on a high-carbohydrate diet stores
far more glycogen in muscles than a person on
mixed diet or high-fat diet endurance is
greatly enhanced by a high-carbohydrate diet

..Endurance
Type of Diet
High-carbohydrate
Mixed
High-fat

Glycogen
stored

Complete
exhaustion

(gm/ kg
muscles)

(minutes)

40
20
6

240
120
85

Muscle Metabolic System in


Exercise
The same basic metabolic systems are present
in muscle as in all other parts of body
However, the activities of 3 metabolic systems
are exceedingly important in understanding
the limits of physical activity:
1. Phosphagen system
2. Glycogen-lactic acid system (anaerobic)
3. Aerobic system
The amount of ATP present in the muscles,
even in well-trained athlete , is sufficient to
sustain maximal muscle power for only 3
seconds/ one half of a 50-m dash

..Muscle Metabolic System in


Exercise
Phosphocre
atine
Glycogen

Glucose
Fatty
acid
Amino
acids

Creatine +
PO3
Lactic
acid

ATP

ADP

AMP
+ O2

CO2 +
H2Urea
O
+

Energy
For
Muscle
contraction

..Muscle Metabolic System in


Exercise
Metabolic
system
Phosphagen
system
Glycogen-lactic
acid system
Aerobic system

M of ATP/
min

Time

8 10 sec

2.5

1.3 1.6 min

Unlimited
time (as long
as nutrients
last)

Recovery of Metabolic System


After Exercise
1. Repaid of oxygen debt: 11.5 L
Body normally contains 2 L of stored O2:
- 0.5 L in lungs
- 0.25 L dissolved in body fluids
- 1 L combined with Hb
- 0.3 L combined with myoglobin
In heavy exercise , almost all O2 is used
After exercise over, the stored oxygen
must be replenished by breathing
9 L more to provide for reconstituting
phosphagen and lactic acid system

....Recovery of Metabolic System After


Exercise
2. Recovery of muscle glycogen
Not a simple matter
Often requires days
- A high carbohydrate diet: full recovery in 2
days
- A high -fat/ high-protein diet: little recovery
even after 5 days
- Important for athlete to have a high
carbohydrate diet before a grueling athletic
event
- not to participate in exhaustive exercise
during the 48 hours preceding the event

Effect of Training on Muscles


Muscles that function under no load, even
if they are exercised for hours on end,
increase little in strength
Muscle that contract at > 50% maximal
force of contraction will develop strength
rapidly even if the contractions are
performed only a few times each day
Experiments on muscle building: maximal
muscle contractions performed in three
sets 3 days a week give approximately
optimal increase in muscle strength and
without producing chronic muscle fatigue

Fast-twitch and Slow-twitch


Muscle Fibers
Fast-twitch:
- twice as large in diameter
- the enzymes that promote rapid release
of energy are 2-3 times as active in fasttwitch as in slow- twitch
Slow-twitch:
- mainly organized for endurance especially
for generation of aerobic energy
- contain more myoglobin
- the enzymes of aerobic metabolic system
more active than fast-twitch
- the number of capillaries per mass of
fibers is greater than in fast-twitch

Cardio-respiratory Function in
Exercise
Oxygen consumption and total
pulmonary ventilation increase 20-fold
between the resting state and maximum
intensity of exercise in the well-trained
athlete
O2 diffusing capacity, that is the rate at
which O2 can diffuse from alveoli into the
blood: 3-fold increase
Respiration is stimulated mainly by
neurogenic mechanisms
Venous return and COP
Hypertrophy of myocardium

Effect of Training on VO2


Max
VO2 max is abbreviation for the
rate of oxygen usage under
maximal aerobic metabolism
Experiments:
- Athletic training for 7-13 weeks:
VO2 max increased only 10 %, and
the frequency of training had little
effect on the increase in VO2 max
- Marathon training: VO2 max
increased > 10 %

Body Heat in Exercise


During endurance athletics, body
temperature often rises to 40C even under
normal environmental conditions
With very hot and humid conditions or excess
clothing, the body temperature can easily
rise to 42C heat stroke destructive to
tissue cells, especially to brain cells:
- extreme weakness
- exhaustion
- headache, dizziness, nausea
- profuse sweating
- confusing, staggering gait, collapse,
unconsciousness

Body Fluids in Exercise


5-10 pound weight loss has been recorded in
athletes in a period of 1 hour during endurance
athletic events under hot and humid conditions
Essentially results from loss of sweat
Loss of sweat to decrease body weight
- 3%: can significantly diminish performance
- 5-10% rapid decrease can often be serious,
leading to muscle cramps, nausea and other
effects
Therefore it is essential to replace fluid as it is
lost including replacement of salt and
potassium

Thank You