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Impression Materials

Lecture 4
PRESENTED BY:
DR. HASAN MD. RIZVI
BDS (DHAKA DENTAL COLLEGE), BCS(HEALTH), FCPS
(ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS)

LECTURER, DENTAL UNIT. SHAHID SHURUWARDI


MEDICAL COLLEGE.

Classification of Impression Materials


Non-elastic

Materials

1- Impression plaster (rigid)


2- Impression Compound (thermoplastic)
3- Impression waxes (thermoplastic)
4-Impression paste (rigid)
Elastic

I-

Materials

Hydrocolloids
1- Reversible (Agar)
a Rubber base b Mercaptan
c Thiokol
2- Irreversible (Alginate)

II- Synthetic Elastomers


1- Polysulphides

2- Polyether
3- Silicones
a- Condensation silicone
b- Addition cured silicone

Elastomeric Impression Materials


A material that is used when an extremely accurate

impression is essential. The term elastomeric means


having elastic or rubberlike qualities.
They are soft and rubber like and far more stronger and
stable than the hydrocolloids.
They are liquid polymers which can be converted to
solid rubber at room temperature. By mixing with a
suitable catalyst, they undergo polymerization and/or
crosslinking reaction to produce a firm elastic solid.
Initially they were called rubber-base or rubber
impression materials. Currently, they referred to as
elastomeric impression materials.

Types of Elastomeric Materials (chemically)


Polysulfide
Polyether
Silicone

a- Condensation silicones
b- Addition cured silicones (Polyvinyl siloxane )

Forms of Elastomeric Materials


Light-bodied

Also referred to as syringe type, or wash type. This


material is used because of its ability to flow in and
about the details of the prepared tooth. A special
syringe, or extruder, is used to place the light-bodied
material on and immediately around the prepared
teeth.

Forms of Elastomeric Materials (cont)


Regular and heavy-bodied or very heavy body
Often referred to as traytype materials, they are much
thicker. As the names imply, they are used to fill the
tray. Their stiffness helps to force the lightbodied
material into close contact with the prepared teeth and
surrounding tissues to ensure a more accurate
impression of the details of a preparation.

Elastic
Elastic
Polysulfides
Polysulfides

Polyethers
Polyethers

Non-aqueous
Non-aqueous
elastomers
elastomers

Condensation
Condensation
silicone
silicone

Addition
Addition
silicone
silicone

Uses of elastomeric impression materials


In fixed partial dentures or fixed prosthesis for

impressions of prepared teeth.


Impressions of dentulous mouths for removable partial
dentures.
Impressions of edentulous mouths for complete dentures.
Polyether is used for border molding of edentulous
custom trays.
For bite registration.
Silicone duplicating material is used for making refractory
casts during cast partial denture construction.

Supplied as

Collapsible tubes
Light and regular body material are also supplied in

cartridges to be used with automixing tips and


dispensers.
Putty consistent supplied in jars

Polysulfide Impression Material


The first elastomeric impression material to be introduced (1950). It is also known as

Mercaptan or Thiokol. Comersial name= coe-flex(lead dioxide system) Omni


flex(Copper hydrooxide system)
Chemical makeup:
Base paste: liquid polysulfied polymer 80-85% + fillers (Zinc sulfate, lithopone, or
calcium sulfate dihydrate)
Reactor paste:
Catalysts: lead dioxide 60-68%, Dibutyle phthalate 30-35%, Copper hydroxides, zinc
peroxide, organic hydroperoxide.
Cross-linking agent: Sulfur and/or lead peroxide.
Other subctance: Magnesium stearate (retarder) + deodorants
Tray adhesive :
Butyl rubber or styrene dissolved in a \ solvent such as chloroform or a ketone is used with
polysulfide.

Setting Reaction
pbo2 +S
Mercaptan + Lead dioxide
(liquid polymer)

polysulfide + H2O

(solid highly elastic flexible)

Exothermic reaction accelerated by moisture and


heat

Manipulation and Technique Considerations


for Polysulfide Material
Dispense pastes at the top of the mixing pad.
Mix pastes with the tip of a spatula to incorporate the material

first.
Transfer the material to the fresh surface of the mixing pad.
Water, saliva, and blood affect polysulfide material.
Impression should be removed quickly after setting-do not rock
the tray.
Adhesive must be thin and dry before adding the impression
material.
Wait 20 to 30 minutes before pouring the impression for the
stress relaxation to occur in the material.
Be careful of glove powder contamination of the impression.

PROPERTIES
Advantages:
Accurate if poured without delay (maximum storage time

is 48 hours)
Long working time (multiple preparations cases)
Excellent tear resistance (high tensile strain before
tearing)
It has good flexibility (7%) and low hardness. A 2 mm
spacing in the tray is sufficient for making an impression.
It can be electroplated.
The shelf life is good (2 years).

PROPERTIES
Disadvantages:
Unpleasant odor and color. Is messy to work with as these
materials are extremely viscous and sticky. mixing is
difficult. The mixing time is 45 seconds.
It has a long setting time of 12.5 minutes (at 37C). In
colder climates setting can take as long as 16 minutes. This
adds to the patient's discomfort.
curing shrinkage is high (0.45%) and continues
even after setting has the highest permanent deformation
(3 to 5%) among the elastomers. Elastic recovery improves
with time and so pouring of the
model should be delayed by half an hour. Further delay is
avoided to minimize curing shrinkage.

SILICONE RUBBER IMPRESSION MATERIALS


These materials were developed to overcome
some of the disadvantages of polysulfide
materials.

Condensation silicones

This was earlier of two silicone impression materials----refered to as conventional silicones.


Supplied as:
Collapsible tubes base tube being larger.
Putty single large jar catalyst paste/liquid.
Light /medium bodied , putty
Commercial name: sil 21. coltex, dent-a-scon

Chemical makeup:
Base paste: polydimethyl siloxane + filler (metal
oxide) 35-75% + coloring agent
Reactor paste:
Catalysts: Stannous octate
Cross-linking agent: Orthoethyl silicate

Setting Reaction
A codensation polymerization(exothermic) reaction
occurs ---leading to crosslinkage between Orthoethyl
silicate and the terminal hydroxy group of dimethyl
siloxane to form three dimensional network.
Stannous octate

Dimethyl siloxane + Orthoethyl silicate


Silicone rubber + Ethyl alcohol
ethyl alcohol formed as a by-product evaporates
gradually from the set rubber leading to shrinkage.

Tray adhesive
The adhesive for silicones contain poly (dimethyl
siloxane)(bonds with the rubber) and ethyl silicate
(create a physical bond with the tray).

PROPERTIES
Advantages:
Pleasant color and odor. Although nontoxic, direct
skin contact should be avoided to prevent any
allergic reactions.
Setting time is 6 to 9 minutes. Mixing time is 45
seconds.
Excellent reproduction of surface details.
Can be plated with silver/copper. Silver-plating is
preferred.

PROPERTIES
Disadvantages:
Dimensional stability is comparatively less because of

the high curing shrinkage (0.4 to 0.6%), and shrinkage


due to evaporation of the ethyl alcohol byproduct. To
avoid this the cast should be poured immediately. The
permanent deformation is also high(1-3%).
Tear strength (3000) gm/cm is lower than the
polysulfides.
It is stiffer and harder than polysulfide. The hardness
increases with time.The spacing in the tray is
increased to 3 mm to compensate for the stiffness.

Manipulation and Technique Considerations for


Silicone Material
The material has a limited shelf life.
The tray requires a special tray adhesive.
No syneresis or imbibition but does respond with

shrinkage over time.


The material is more flexible, so there is more chance
for distortion during removal.
Wait 20 to 30 minutes before pouring of models for
stress relaxation to occur.

Disadvantages:
It is hydrophobic. The field should be well-dried

before making an impression.Care should also be


taken while pouring the cast to avoid air entrapment.
Shelf life is slightly less than polysulfides due to the
unstable nature of the orthoethyl silicates.

Addition silicones (polyvinyl siloxane)


These new materials had bettter properties when
compared to the condensation silicones. Also known as
polyvinyl siloxane. Currently, are perhaps the most
widely used elastomeric impression material worldwide.
Commercial names: Reprosil (Dentsply) , President
(Coltene), Provil.
Supplied as:
The base and catalyst pastes come in equal sized tubes.
The different viscosities usually come in different colors
like orange, blue, green, etc.

Supplied as:
Cartridge form with automixing tips For use with a

dispensing gun.
Putty jars Two equal sized plastic jarscontaining
the base and catalyst
A larger electric driven autodispenser and mixing
device is also available(PentamixESPE). This
machine stores larger quantities. At the press of the
button, it dispenses and mixes the material.
Available in Four Viscosities
Light bodied/Medium bodied/Heavy bodied/Putty

COMPOSITION
Base:
Poly (methyl hydrogen siloxane)
or Other siloxane prepolymers
Fillers
Accelerator:
Divinyl polysiloxane Other siloxane prepolymers
Platinum salt-catalyst (chloroplatinic acid)
Palladium or hydrogen absorber
Retarders
Fillers

Setting Reaction
It is an addition reaction. In this case, the base polymer is
terminated with vinyl groups and is crosslinked with silane
(hydride groups). The reaction is activated by the platinum
salt.
Pt salt
Vinyl siloxane +Silane siloxane
Silicone rubber
No byproducts as long as vinyl= silane if unbalanced H 2 is
produced cause air bubble in stone model palladium added
to absorb H2 nb sulfer retard setting reaction contamination can
occur from latex gloves so use vinyl gloves.

PROPERTIES
Advantages:
Pleasant odor and color.
Excellent reproduction of surface details.
Setting time ranges from 5 to 9 minutes. Mixing time is 45 seconds.
It has the best dimensional stability among the elastomers. It has a

low curing shrinkage (0.17%) and the lowest permanent


deformation (0.05 to 0.3%). If hydrogen gas is liberated pouring of
stone should be delayed by 1-2 hours. Otherwise air bubbles will
result.
It has good tear strength (3000 gm/cm).
It can be electroplated with silver or copper. However, hydrophilic
silicones are more difficult to electroplate because of the surfactant
added.
Shelf life ranges from 1 to 2 years.

PROPERTIES
Disadvantages:
This may also cause allergic reaction so direct skin contact
should be avoided.
It is extremely hydrophobic, so similar care should be taken
while making the impression and pouring the wet stone.
Some manufacturers add a surfactant (detergent) to make it
more hydrophilic.
It has low flexibility and is harder than polysulfides. Extra
spacing (3 mm) should be provided in the impression tray.
Care should also be taken while
removing the stone cast from the impression to avoid any
breakage.

Manipulation and Technique Considerations for


Polyvinyl Siloxane Material
For dimensional stability, this is the best impression

material.
Pouring of the model can be delayed up to 7 to 10
days.
Stiffness of the material makes removal of the tray
difficult.
Material dispensed using auto-mixing unit and
mixing tips.

One step impression technique

Two stage putty wash technique

POLYETHER RUBBER IMPRESSION MATERIAL

Polyether was introduced in Germany in the late 1960s. It


has good mechanical properties and dimensional stability.
Its disadvantage was that the working time was short and
the material was very stiff. It is also expensive.
Supplied as:
Available as base and accelerator in collapsible tubes. The
accelerator tube is usually smaller. A third tube containing a
thinner was provided. Now it is available in three viscosities:
Light bodied
Medium bodied
Heavy bodied

Supplied as:
Commercial name: Impregum F(premier),Ramitec,
polyjel(Dentsply)

COMPOSITION
Base:
Polyether polymer
Colloidal silica --------filler
Glycolether or phthalate-------plasticizer
Accelerator Paste:
Aromatic sulfonate ester ----cross-linking agent
Colloidal silica -----------filler
Phthalate or glycolether------plasticizer

SETTING REACTION
It is cured by the reaction between aziridine rings which are at the
end of branched polyether molecule.
Crosslinking is brought about by the aromatic sulfonate ester via
the imine end groups. The reaction is exothermic (4 to 5C).

Polyether + Sulfonic ester


Crosslinked rubber

PROPERTIES
Advantages:
Pleasant odor and taste.
Dimensional stability is very good. Curing shrinkage is low
(0.24%)permanent deformation is also low (0.8 to 1.6%). However,
polyethers absorb water and can change dimension. Therefore
prolonged storage in humid climates is not recommended.
Tear strength is good (3000 gm/cm).
It is hydrophilic, so moisture in the impression field is not so critical
the best compatibility with stone among the elastomers.
It can be electroplated with silver or copper.
The shelf life is excellent more than 2 years.
It has excellent detail reproduction (20 micron).

PROPERTIES
Disadvantages:
The sulfonic ester can cause skin reactions. Thorough mixing is

recommended before making an impression and direct skin contact


should be avoided.
Setting time is around 6 to 8 minutes. Mixing should be done
quickly which is 30 seconds. Heat decreases the setting time.
It is extremely stiff,(flexibility 3%). It is harder than,polysulfides and
increases with time. Removing it from undercuts can be difficult, so
additional spacing of
(4 mm) is recommended. Care should also be taken while
removing the cast from the impression to avoid any
breakage.
Prolonged exposure may cause the surface of the impression to
become sticky (depolymerizes) after several days

Manipulation of rubber impression materials


PUTTY
With addition silicones, equal scoops of base and accelerator are taken.
With condensation silicones, the required number of scoops of base and

recommended amount of liquid or paste accelerator is taken.


In either case mixing is done by kneading between the fingers. Mixing is
done until a streak free mix is obtained.
PASTE
For Polysulfides and Addition Silicones
Equal lengths of base and accelerator is extruded onto the mixing pad sideby-side without touching.
The accelerator paste is then incorporated into the base paste. Mixing is
done using a tapered stiff bladed spatula.
Just before loading the tray the material should be spread in a thin layer to
release the trapped air bubbles. A streak free mix is obtained in 45 seconds.

Manipulation of rubber impression materials


Condensation Silicons
Unlike addition silicone, the quantity of catalyst paste needed
is very little. The manufacturer usually marks the length
required on the mixing pad. The two pastes therefore are of
unequal length and diameter
For Polyether
The required amount of thinner (when supplied) may be added
to the base and accelerator depending on the viscosity needed.
Again, like condensation silicone. the quantity of accelerator
needed is very little. The ratio is usually displayed on the
mixing pad. The mixing should be done quickly. The mixing
time is 30 seoconds

TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Impressions can be made in custom or stock trays.
Elastomers do not adhere well to the tray. An

adhesive should be applied to the tray and allowed


to dry before making impressions. The
adhesive cements provided with the various
elastomers are not interchangeable. A slightly
roughened tray surface will increase the adhesion.
For putty impressions, a perforated stock tray is
used. The perforations help to retain the putty in the
tray .

TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS
The spacing given is between 2 to 4 mm.

METHODS OF MAKING IMPRESSIONS:


SINGLE MIX TECHNIQUE
Tray used Resin custom tray with 2-4 mm spacing.
Viscosity used Regular only.
Method :
The paste is mixed and part of it is loaded on to the tray and
part into a syringe. The syringe material is then injected on to
the prepared area of impression.
The tray with material is seated over it. The material is
allowed to set.

METHODS OF MAKING IMPRESSIONS:


MULTIPLE MIX TECHNIQUE
Tray used Resin custom tray with 2-4 mm spacing.
Viscosity used (a) Heavy bodied and (b) light bodied.
Method : The two viscosities are mixed
simultaneously on separate pads.heavy body is loaded
into the tray while the light bodied is loaded into the
syringe. The syringe material is injected over the
preparation. The tray containing the heavy body if
then seated over it. Both materials set together to
produce a single impression.

METHODS OF MAKING IMPRESSIONS:


ONE-STAGE PUTTY-WASH TECHNIQUE
shown
TWO-STAGE PUTTY-WASH TECHNIQUE
shown

REMOVAL OF THE IMPRESSION


Removal is facilitated by breaking the airseal. This

can be done by teasing the borders of the tray


parallel to the path of insertion until the air leaks
into the tray.
In addition to the holding the tray handle, a finger
on the buccal portion of the tray may be used to
apply additional pressure to dislodge the tray.

INFECTION CONTROL
Rubber impression materials are disinfected by
immersing in disinfectant solutions. 10 minutes in 2%
glutaraldehyde or 3 minutes in chlorine dioxide
solutions have been found to be satisfactory. Because
of its tendency to absorb water, a spray of chlorine
dioxide is preferred in case of polyether. Other disin
fectants used are phenol and iodophor.

THANK YOU