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Intro physics 151 csulb

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Angular momentum

Angular Momentum is a measure of rotational motion

Translational (or orbital) angular momentum

and

rotational (or spin) angular momentum

Magnitude of Translational Angular Momentum, relative to the center

of the Sun is

spins about its own axis

The position vector and the momentum

of the Earth change continuously

11.1 Examples

Example: Earths translational Angular Momentum: (p. 415)

Calculate the magnitude of Earths translational (orbital) angular momentum

relative to the Sun when the Earth is al location A and when the Earth is at

location B as shown below. The mass of the Earth is 6 x 1024 kg and its distance

from the Sun is 1.5 x 1011 m.

Ltrans,Sun = r p sin

where is the angle between r and p

momentum is constant throughout the orbit

Right-Hand Rule: Curl the fingers of

your right hand in the direction of the

rotational motion in the plane, and

extend your thumb. The unit vector

representing the direction of the

angular momentum is defined to point

in the direction of your thumb.

Unit vector points

out of the plane: ccw into the plane: cw

Assuming the usual coordinate system, what is the direction of the Earths

translational angular momentum?

Answer: in the +z direction: out of the page toward you

Right-Hand Rule: Curl the fingers of

your right hand in the direction of the

rotational motion in the plane, and

extend your thumb. The unit vector

representing the direction of the

angular momentum is defined to point

in the direction of your thumb.

Unit vector points

out of the plane: cw

(translational) angular momentum of the

comet relative to the Sun?

Answer: it is in the y direction (into the page)

into the plane: ccw

The highly elliptical orbit of Halleys comet is shown below.

When the comet is closest to the Sun, at the location specified by the position

vector r1 (perihelion), it is 8.77 x 1010 m from the Sun, and its speed is 5.46 x

104 m/s.

When the comet is at location specified by the position vector r2 , its speed is

1.32 x 104 m/s. At that location the distance between the comet and the Sun is

1.19 x 1012 m, and the angle is 17.810. The mass of the comet is estimated to be

2.2 x 1014 kg.

Calculate the translational (orbital) angular momentum of the comet, relative to

the Sun, at both locations.

Direction of the translational angular momentum:

in the y direction (into the page)

angular momentum is

constant throughout the orbit

ixj=k

jxi= -k

jxk=i

kxj= -i

kxi=j

ixk= -j

Cross Product A x B

A x B = < Ay Bz Az By , Az Bx Ax Bz , Ax By Ay Bx >

|A x B | = AB sin

The direction is given by the right-hand rule

vector that is perpendicular to

the two original vectors

Example:

1) Ltrans,A = rA x p = < ry pz rz py , rz px rx pz , rx py ry px >

2) Ltrans,A = rA p sin

The direction of Ltrans,A is given by the right-hand rule

point your fingers along r

a line collinear with p

3) Ltrans,A = r p

points in the direction of r x p

r = r sin

Example:

Example: Calculating Angular Momentum (p.420):

Use three different methods to calculate the angular momentum of the particle

relative to location B. How does this value compare to the angular momentum of

the same particle relative to location A and to location C?

Method 1: Vector cross product:

LB = rB x p = < ry pz rz py , rz px rx pz , rx py ry px >

Cyclic nature of the subscripts: x:yz, y:zx, z:xy

h=5m

w=4m

b = 3m

rB = <-4, 3, 0> m

p = (10, 0, 0> km.m/s

right-hand rule: direction of

LB in the z (into the page)

sin = 3/5

use right-hand rule

h=5m

w=4m

b = 3m

p = (10, 0, 0> km.m/s

r = r sin = 5 (3/5) m = 3 m

sin = 3/5

the same as the translational angular momentum relative to location B,

because the perpendicular distance r is the same (3 m).

About location C, r is zero because the momentum points straight toward C.

The translational angular momentum relative to location C is zero.

one method to find the angular momentum

11.X.2 Determine both the direction and magnitude of the angular momentum of

the particle in figure below, relative to location D, E, F, G, and H. Notice how the

magnitude and direction of the angular momentum relative to the different

locations differ in magnitude and direction.

Example:

11.X.3 A comet orbits the Sun. When it is at location 1 it is a distance d1 from the

Sun, and has magnitude of momentum p1. Location A is at the center of the Sun.

When the comet is at location 2, it is a distance d2 from the Sun, and has

magnitude of momentum p2 .

a) When the comet is at location 1, what is the direction of LA?

b) When the comet is at location 1, what is the magnitude of LA?

c) When the comet is at location 2, what is the direction of LA?

d) When the comet is at location 2, what is the magnitude of LA?

A bicycle wheel spinning about its

center of mass with angular speed

Magnitude: radians/second

Direction: apply right-hand rule

Rotational Angular Momentum

Lrot= I where I is the momentum of inertia

Krot and Lrot

Krot = (1/2)I2 = (1/2) (IL2rot/2I

angular velocity vector

Lrot= I

Krot = (1/2)I 2 = L2rot/2I

Example: Rotational angular momentum of a bicycle wheel (p.422)

A bicycle wheel has a mass of 0.8 kg and a radius of 32 cm. If the wheel

rotates in the xz plane, spinning clockwise when viewed from the +y axis,

and making one full revolution in 0.75 seconds, what is the rotational

angular momentum of the wheel?

Lrot= I

Krot = (1/2)I 2 = L2rot/2I

11.X.5: A barbell spins around a pivot at its center at A. The barbell consists of

two small balls, each with mass m = 0.4 kg, at the ends of a very low mass rod of

length d = 0.6 m. The barbell spins clockwise with angular speed 0 = 20

radians/s.

a) Consider the two balls separately, and calculate Ltrans,1,A and Ltrans,2,A (both

direction and magnitude in each case).

b) Calculate Ltotal,A = Ltrans,1,A + Ltrans,2,A (both direction and magnitude)

c) Next, consider the two balls together and calculate I for the barbell.

d) What is the direction of the angular velocity 0?

e) Calculate Lrot = I0 (both direction and magnitude).

f) How does Lrot compare to Ltotal,A ?

e) Calculate Krot.

11.X.5: A barbell spins around a pivot at its center at A. The barbell consists of two

small balls, each with mass m = 0.4 kg, at the ends of a very low mass rod of length

d = 0.6 m. The barbell spins clockwise with angular speed 0 = 20 radians/s.

a) Consider the two balls separately, and calculate Ltrans,1,A and Ltrans,2,A (both

direction and magnitude in each case).

b) Calculate Ltotal,A = Ltrans,1,A + Ltrans,2,A (both direction and magnitude)

c) Next, consider the two balls together and calculate I for the barbell.

d) What is the direction of the angular velocity 0?

e) Calculate Lrot = I0 (both direction and magnitude).

f) How does Lrot compare to Ltotal,A ? The point is that the form I is just a

convenient way of calculating the (rotational) angular momentum of a multiparticle

system. In principle one can always calculate the angular momentum simply by

adding up the individual angular momenta of all particles.

g) Calculate Krot.

Angular momentum can be split into a term associated with the motion of the

center of mass (translational angular momentum) plus a term associated with

rotation around the center of mass (rotational angular momentum):

LA = Ltrans,A + Lrot

Lrot = ri,CM x pi

of the Earth relative to the location of the

Sun, and rotational momentum of the Earth

relative to the Earths center of mass

Angular momentum of a rotating rigid object:

L = I = (Mr2CM + ICM )

Definition of Torque (twist):

A rA x F

Magnitude of Torque:

| A | | rA x F |= rAFsin

Torque relative

to location A

Twist n nut, or

push straight at it?

For = 0 , sin = 0

| A | 0

0

| A | rAF

distance from the nut at

location A

Applying torque, or twist, to a system changes

the angular momentum of the system.

The angular Momentum Principle for a particle:

dLA/dt = net,A

LA= net,A t

derivative form

Torque relative

to location A

magnitude of the torque about location A, including units? If the force in

figure below were perpendicular to rA but gave the same torque as before,

what would its magnitude be?

11.X.12: At t = 15 s, a particle has angular momentum <3, 5, -2> kg.m2/s

relative to location A. A constant torque <10, -12, 20> N.m relative to

location A acts on the particle. At t = 15.1 s, what is the angular momentum

of the particle?

Definition of Torque (twist) due to F:

A rA x F

Magnitude of Torque:

Torque relative

to location A

| A | | rA x F |= rAFsin

straight at it?

| A | 0

| A | rAF

distance from the nut at

location A

Example: Torque on a Comet

Relative to the center of the Sun, explain why the torque exerted by the Suns

gravitational force on the comet is zero at every point along the orbit. What does

that say about the angular momentum of the comet relative to the center of the

Sun?

LA, system + LA, surroundings = 0

Applying torque, or twist, to a system changes

the angular momentum of the system.

The angular Momentum Principle for a particle:

dLA/dt = net,A

LA= net,A t

derivative form

Torque relative

to location A

magnitude of the torque about location A, including units? If the force in

figure below were perpendicular to rA but gave the same torque as before,

what would its magnitude be?

The Angular Momentum Principle for a Multiparticle System

dLtot,A/dt = net,A

derivative form

Ltot,A= net,A t

dLrot/dt = net,CM

derivative form

Lrot= net,CMt

A playground ride consists of a uniform-density disk of mass 300 kg and

radius 2 m mounted on a low-friction axle. Starting from a distance of 5 m

from the disk, a child of mass 40 kg runs at 3 m/s on a line tangential to the

disk and jumps onto the outer edge of the disk. If the disk was initially at rest,

how fast does it rotate just after the collision?

impulse force to the left

what direction, depends on the

impact parameter r

Momentum principle:

dp/dt = Fnet

dLA/dt = net,A

Energy principle:

E = W + Q

plane on a horizontal low-friction axle. The wheel has mass M, all

concentrated in the rim (the spokes have negligible mass). A lump of clay

with mass m falls and sticks to the outer edge of the wheel at the location

shown. Just before the impact the clay has a speed v.

a) Just before the impact, what is the angular momentum of the combined

system of the wheel plus clay about the center C?

b) Just after the impact, what is the angular momentum of the combined

system of the wheel plus clay about the center C, in terms of the angular

speed of the wheel?

c) Just after the impact, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular

velocity of the wheel?

d) Qualitatively, what happens to the linear momentum of the combined

system? Why?

force of 10 N by a string wrapped around the edge. 24 cm of string has

unwound off the disk. What are the magnitude and direction of the torque

exerted about the center of the disk at this instant?

(1/2)MR2). At the instant shown, the angular velocity is 20 radians/s into the

page.

a) At this instant, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular

momentum about the center of the disk?

b) At a time 0.2 s later, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular

momentum about the center of the disk?

c) At this later time, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular

velocity?

At this instant, there are two forces of equal magnitude applied to the system,

with the directions indicated, and at this instant the angular velocity is 60

radians/s, counterclockwise. In the next 0.001 s, the angular momentum

relative to the center increases by an amount 2.5 x 10 -4 kg.m2/s. What is the

magnitude of each force? What is the net force?

CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM, L

The angular momentum L of a system remains constant

(is conserved) if the net external torque acting on the

system is zero.

That is, when net = 0

Li = Lf or

Iii= Iff

In a situation in which there is zero external torque, the angular momentum of

a system does not change in the shape or configuration of the system

A Spinning Skater:

The skater spins slowly

with leg stretched out

leg and spins faster

A High Dive:

A divers moment of

inertia is large when his

body is extended

A divers moment of

inertia is smaller

when he curled into

a ball

A meter stick on the ice (p.439) and a puck with string wound around

it: dp/dt = Fnet, dLA/dt = net,A.

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