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Chapter 11

Angular momentum

11.1 Translational angular momentum


Angular Momentum is a measure of rotational motion
Translational (or orbital) angular momentum
and
rotational (or spin) angular momentum
Magnitude of Translational Angular Momentum, relative to the center
of the Sun is

Ltrans,Sun = r p sin where is the angle between r and p

The Earth orbits the Sun, and it also


spins about its own axis
The position vector and the momentum
of the Earth change continuously

11.1 Examples
Example: Earths translational Angular Momentum: (p. 415)
Calculate the magnitude of Earths translational (orbital) angular momentum
relative to the Sun when the Earth is al location A and when the Earth is at
location B as shown below. The mass of the Earth is 6 x 1024 kg and its distance
from the Sun is 1.5 x 1011 m.

Ltrans,Sun = r p sin
where is the angle between r and p

The Earths translational angular


momentum is constant throughout the orbit

Direction of Translational Angular Momentum:


Right-Hand Rule: Curl the fingers of
your right hand in the direction of the
rotational motion in the plane, and
extend your thumb. The unit vector
representing the direction of the
angular momentum is defined to point
in the direction of your thumb.

Unit vector points


Unit vector points
out of the plane: ccw into the plane: cw

Example: Direction of translational angular momentum (p.416):


Assuming the usual coordinate system, what is the direction of the Earths
translational angular momentum?
Answer: in the +z direction: out of the page toward you

Direction of Translational Angular Momentum:


Right-Hand Rule: Curl the fingers of
your right hand in the direction of the
rotational motion in the plane, and
extend your thumb. The unit vector
representing the direction of the
angular momentum is defined to point
in the direction of your thumb.
Unit vector points
out of the plane: cw

11.X.1: What is the direction of the orbital


(translational) angular momentum of the
comet relative to the Sun?
Answer: it is in the y direction (into the page)

Unit vector points


into the plane: ccw

Example: Angular momentum of Halleys comet (p.417):


The highly elliptical orbit of Halleys comet is shown below.
When the comet is closest to the Sun, at the location specified by the position
vector r1 (perihelion), it is 8.77 x 1010 m from the Sun, and its speed is 5.46 x
104 m/s.
When the comet is at location specified by the position vector r2 , its speed is
1.32 x 104 m/s. At that location the distance between the comet and the Sun is
1.19 x 1012 m, and the angle is 17.810. The mass of the comet is estimated to be
2.2 x 1014 kg.
Calculate the translational (orbital) angular momentum of the comet, relative to
the Sun, at both locations.
Direction of the translational angular momentum:
in the y direction (into the page)

The comets translational


angular momentum is
constant throughout the orbit

Cross product of unit vectors:


ixj=k

jxi= -k

jxk=i

kxj= -i

kxi=j

ixk= -j

Cross Product A x B
A x B = < Ay Bz Az By , Az Bx Ax Bz , Ax By Ay Bx >
|A x B | = AB sin
The direction is given by the right-hand rule

The cross product produces a


vector that is perpendicular to
the two original vectors

Cyclic nature of the subscripts: x:yz, y:zx, z:xy


Example:

<2,3,4> <5,6,7> = <3.7 4.6, 4.5 2.7, 2.6 3.5> = <-3,6,-3>

Translational Angular Momentum of an Object Relative to Location A


1) Ltrans,A = rA x p = < ry pz rz py , rz px rx pz , rx py ry px >
2) Ltrans,A = rA p sin
The direction of Ltrans,A is given by the right-hand rule

With the tails of r and p together,


point your fingers along r

Perpendicular distance from the tail of r to


a line collinear with p

3) Ltrans,A = r p

Fold your fingers toward p: the thumb


points in the direction of r x p

r = r sin

Example:
Example: Calculating Angular Momentum (p.420):
Use three different methods to calculate the angular momentum of the particle
relative to location B. How does this value compare to the angular momentum of
the same particle relative to location A and to location C?
Method 1: Vector cross product:
LB = rB x p = < ry pz rz py , rz px rx pz , rx py ry px >
Cyclic nature of the subscripts: x:yz, y:zx, z:xy
h=5m
w=4m
b = 3m
rB = <-4, 3, 0> m
p = (10, 0, 0> km.m/s

Method 2: Direction and magnitude using LB = rB p sin


right-hand rule: direction of
LB in the z (into the page)
sin = 3/5

Method 3: Direction and magnitude using LB = r p


use right-hand rule

h=5m
w=4m
b = 3m
p = (10, 0, 0> km.m/s

r = r sin = 5 (3/5) m = 3 m

sin = 3/5

The translational angular momentum relative to location A is exactly


the same as the translational angular momentum relative to location B,
because the perpendicular distance r is the same (3 m).
About location C, r is zero because the momentum points straight toward C.
The translational angular momentum relative to location C is zero.

One way to check your work is to try more than


one method to find the angular momentum
11.X.2 Determine both the direction and magnitude of the angular momentum of
the particle in figure below, relative to location D, E, F, G, and H. Notice how the
magnitude and direction of the angular momentum relative to the different
locations differ in magnitude and direction.

Example:
11.X.3 A comet orbits the Sun. When it is at location 1 it is a distance d1 from the
Sun, and has magnitude of momentum p1. Location A is at the center of the Sun.
When the comet is at location 2, it is a distance d2 from the Sun, and has
magnitude of momentum p2 .
a) When the comet is at location 1, what is the direction of LA?
b) When the comet is at location 1, what is the magnitude of LA?
c) When the comet is at location 2, what is the direction of LA?
d) When the comet is at location 2, what is the magnitude of LA?

11.2 Rotational angular momentum


A bicycle wheel spinning about its
center of mass with angular speed

Angular Velocity Vector


Magnitude: radians/second
Direction: apply right-hand rule
Rotational Angular Momentum
Lrot= I where I is the momentum of inertia
Krot and Lrot
Krot = (1/2)I2 = (1/2) (IL2rot/2I

Finding the direction of the


angular velocity vector

Lrot= I
Krot = (1/2)I 2 = L2rot/2I
Example: Rotational angular momentum of a bicycle wheel (p.422)
A bicycle wheel has a mass of 0.8 kg and a radius of 32 cm. If the wheel
rotates in the xz plane, spinning clockwise when viewed from the +y axis,
and making one full revolution in 0.75 seconds, what is the rotational
angular momentum of the wheel?

Lrot= I
Krot = (1/2)I 2 = L2rot/2I
11.X.5: A barbell spins around a pivot at its center at A. The barbell consists of
two small balls, each with mass m = 0.4 kg, at the ends of a very low mass rod of
length d = 0.6 m. The barbell spins clockwise with angular speed 0 = 20
radians/s.
a) Consider the two balls separately, and calculate Ltrans,1,A and Ltrans,2,A (both
direction and magnitude in each case).
b) Calculate Ltotal,A = Ltrans,1,A + Ltrans,2,A (both direction and magnitude)
c) Next, consider the two balls together and calculate I for the barbell.
d) What is the direction of the angular velocity 0?
e) Calculate Lrot = I0 (both direction and magnitude).
f) How does Lrot compare to Ltotal,A ?
e) Calculate Krot.

11.X.5: A barbell spins around a pivot at its center at A. The barbell consists of two
small balls, each with mass m = 0.4 kg, at the ends of a very low mass rod of length
d = 0.6 m. The barbell spins clockwise with angular speed 0 = 20 radians/s.
a) Consider the two balls separately, and calculate Ltrans,1,A and Ltrans,2,A (both
direction and magnitude in each case).
b) Calculate Ltotal,A = Ltrans,1,A + Ltrans,2,A (both direction and magnitude)
c) Next, consider the two balls together and calculate I for the barbell.
d) What is the direction of the angular velocity 0?
e) Calculate Lrot = I0 (both direction and magnitude).
f) How does Lrot compare to Ltotal,A ? The point is that the form I is just a
convenient way of calculating the (rotational) angular momentum of a multiparticle
system. In principle one can always calculate the angular momentum simply by
adding up the individual angular momenta of all particles.
g) Calculate Krot.

11.X.6: Study this problem (page 424)

11.X.7: Study this problem (page 424)

11.3 Translational plus rotational angular momentum


Angular momentum can be split into a term associated with the motion of the
center of mass (translational angular momentum) plus a term associated with
rotation around the center of mass (rotational angular momentum):
LA = Ltrans,A + Lrot

Ltrans,A = rCM x ptot

Lrot = ri,CM x pi

Example: Translational angular momentum


of the Earth relative to the location of the
Sun, and rotational momentum of the Earth
relative to the Earths center of mass
Angular momentum of a rotating rigid object:
L = I = (Mr2CM + ICM )

where I = Mr2CM + ICM

11.4 The angular momentum principle


Definition of Torque (twist):

A rA x F

Magnitude of Torque:
| A | | rA x F |= rAFsin

Torque relative
to location A

Twist n nut, or
push straight at it?

For = 0 , sin = 0

| A | 0
0

For = 900, sin = 1

| A | rAF

rA is the lever arm: the


distance from the nut at
location A

11.4 The angular momentum principle


Applying torque, or twist, to a system changes
the angular momentum of the system.
The angular Momentum Principle for a particle:
dLA/dt = net,A
LA= net,A t

derivative form

Torque relative
to location A

time finite form

11.X.11: In figure below, if rA = 3 m, F = 4 N, and = 300, what is the


magnitude of the torque about location A, including units? If the force in
figure below were perpendicular to rA but gave the same torque as before,
what would its magnitude be?
11.X.12: At t = 15 s, a particle has angular momentum <3, 5, -2> kg.m2/s
relative to location A. A constant torque <10, -12, 20> N.m relative to
location A acts on the particle. At t = 15.1 s, what is the angular momentum
of the particle?

11.4 The angular momentum principle


Definition of Torque (twist) due to F:
A rA x F
Magnitude of Torque:
Torque relative
to location A

| A | | rA x F |= rAFsin

Twist a nut, or push


straight at it?

For = 00, sin = 0

| A | 0

For = 900, sin = 1

| A | rAF

rA is the lever arm: the


distance from the nut at
location A

11.4 The angular momentum principle


Example: Torque on a Comet
Relative to the center of the Sun, explain why the torque exerted by the Suns
gravitational force on the comet is zero at every point along the orbit. What does
that say about the angular momentum of the comet relative to the center of the
Sun?

Angular momentum is a conserved quantity:


LA, system + LA, surroundings = 0

11.4 The angular momentum principle


Applying torque, or twist, to a system changes
the angular momentum of the system.
The angular Momentum Principle for a particle:
dLA/dt = net,A
LA= net,A t

derivative form

Torque relative
to location A

time finite form

11.X.11: In figure below, if rA = 3 m, F = 4 N, and = 300, what is the


magnitude of the torque about location A, including units? If the force in
figure below were perpendicular to rA but gave the same torque as before,
what would its magnitude be?

11.5 Multiparticle systems


The Angular Momentum Principle for a Multiparticle System
dLtot,A/dt = net,A

derivative form

Ltot,A= net,A t

time finite form

The Angular Momentum Principle relative to the Center of Mass


dLrot/dt = net,CM

derivative form

Lrot= net,CMt

time finite form

Example: A child jumps on to a playground ride (page 432)


A playground ride consists of a uniform-density disk of mass 300 kg and
radius 2 m mounted on a low-friction axle. Starting from a distance of 5 m
from the disk, a child of mass 40 kg runs at 3 m/s on a line tangential to the
disk and jumps onto the outer edge of the disk. If the disk was initially at rest,
how fast does it rotate just after the collision?

The axle exerts a large


impulse force to the left

How much the disk spins, and in


what direction, depends on the
impact parameter r

11.6 Three fundamental principles of mechanics (page 436)

Momentum principle:
dp/dt = Fnet

Angular momentum principle:


dLA/dt = net,A
Energy principle:
E = W + Q

11.X.16: A stationary bicycle wheel of radius R is mounted in the vertical


plane on a horizontal low-friction axle. The wheel has mass M, all
concentrated in the rim (the spokes have negligible mass). A lump of clay
with mass m falls and sticks to the outer edge of the wheel at the location
shown. Just before the impact the clay has a speed v.
a) Just before the impact, what is the angular momentum of the combined
system of the wheel plus clay about the center C?
b) Just after the impact, what is the angular momentum of the combined
system of the wheel plus clay about the center C, in terms of the angular
speed of the wheel?
c) Just after the impact, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular
velocity of the wheel?
d) Qualitatively, what happens to the linear momentum of the combined
system? Why?

11.X.17: A disk of radius 8 cm is pulled along a frictionless surface with a


force of 10 N by a string wrapped around the edge. 24 cm of string has
unwound off the disk. What are the magnitude and direction of the torque
exerted about the center of the disk at this instant?

11.X.18: A uniform solid disk has a mass 0.4 kg (moment of inertia I =


(1/2)MR2). At the instant shown, the angular velocity is 20 radians/s into the
page.
a) At this instant, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular
momentum about the center of the disk?
b) At a time 0.2 s later, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular
momentum about the center of the disk?
c) At this later time, what are the magnitude and direction of the angular
velocity?

11.X.19: A barbell is mounted on a nearly frictionless axle through its center.


At this instant, there are two forces of equal magnitude applied to the system,
with the directions indicated, and at this instant the angular velocity is 60
radians/s, counterclockwise. In the next 0.001 s, the angular momentum
relative to the center increases by an amount 2.5 x 10 -4 kg.m2/s. What is the
magnitude of each force? What is the net force?

11.7 Systems with zero torque


CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM, L
The angular momentum L of a system remains constant
(is conserved) if the net external torque acting on the
system is zero.
That is, when net = 0

Li = Lf or

Iii= Iff

11.7 Systems with zero torque


In a situation in which there is zero external torque, the angular momentum of
a system does not change in the shape or configuration of the system
A Spinning Skater:
The skater spins slowly
with leg stretched out

The skater pulls in her


leg and spins faster

A High Dive:

A divers moment of
inertia is large when his
body is extended

A divers moment of
inertia is smaller
when he curled into
a ball

11.8 Systems with nonzero torques


A meter stick on the ice (p.439) and a puck with string wound around
it: dp/dt = Fnet, dLA/dt = net,A.

Two people on a seesaw (p.441): 0=dp/dt = Fnet, 0=dL/dt = net.