Presentation on robots

Sharwan kumar

Intro

Robot, defined "A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator, designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks."-- From the Robot Institute of America, 1979

Robot Physical Configuration

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All most all of the current day robots fall under the following four configurations. Polar Co-ordinate Configuration Cylindrical Co-ordinate Configuration Jointed Arm Configuration Cartesian Co-ordinate Configuration

Polar Co-ordinate Configuration

This configuration sometimes also referred to as Spherical Co-ordinates as the workspace within which it can move its arm is a partial sphere. The robot typically has a rotary base and a pivot that can be used to raise and lower the telescopic arm

Polar Co-ordinate Configuration

Cylindrical Co-ordinate Configuration

Here, robot body is a vertical column that swivels about a vertical axis. The arm consists of several orthogonal slides which allow the arm to be moved up or down and in and out with respect to the body.

Cylindrical Co-ordinate Configuration

Jointed Arm Configuration

The jointed arm is similar to human arm in appearance. The arm consists of several straight members connected by joints which are analogous to human shoulder, elbow and wrist. The robot arm is mounted to the base which can provide the robot with a capacity to work within a spherical work enclosure.

Jointed Arm Configuration

Cartesian Co-ordinate configuration.

This robot is Cartesian because it allows x-y-z positioning. Three linear joints provide the three axes of motion and define the x, y and z planes. This robot is suited for pick and place applications where either there are no orientation requirements or the parts can be pre-oriented before the robot picks them up (such as surface mounted circuit board assembly)..

Cartesian Co-ordinate configuration.

Robotic Motions

Irrespective of the configuration, the purpose of a robot is to perform an useful task. To accomplish the task, an end Effector or Hand is attached to the end of the robot’s arm. By moving the end effectors along with the arm a robot can perform any specific function for which the effectors are designed.

Basic robot motions

There are six basic motions which provide the robot with the capability to move the end effectors through the required sequence of motions.The six basic motions consist of three arm and body motions and three wrist motions. These motions are describe below:-

Degrees of Freedom

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In three dimensions, the six DOFs of a rigid body are sometimes described using these nautical names: Moving up and down (heaving); Moving left and right (swaying); Moving forward and backward (surging); Tilting along vertical axis (pitching); Tilting front to back (yawing); Tilting side to side , along length (rolling).

Degrees of Freedom

Major features of a Robot

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The major features that are common to almost all types of robots are : Manipulator (or arm) Controller(the brain of robot ) Sensors Power supply unit

Manipulator (or arm)

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The robot manipulator contains three structural elements. The arm , the wrist and the hand (or end effectors).

The end effectors

At the end of human arm there is hand and figures , similarly at the free end of the robot arm there is a component called end effectors.

The end effectors

End effectors

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End effectors fall in two major categories . these are: Grippers Tools

Grippers

Grippers are end effectors used to hold objects. The objects are the work parts that are moved by the robot for purposes such as picking parts from conveyors, arranging parts in pallets,machine loading and unloading, handling of cartoons and materials etc

Tools

Tools are end effectors designed to perform some work on the part rather than merely grasping it . Such applications include spot welding gun , spray painting gun , arc welding gun etc

Controller

A digital computer is the most commonly used controller. It directs and controls the movement of the manipulator and the end effector by controlling the motors that drive the robot links at the joints.

Sensors

Sensors are the transducers that are used to measures physical variable of interest.the robot must take on more humanlike senses and capabilities in order to perform the task in a satisfactory way. These senses and capabilities include vision and hand-eye coordination, touch and hearing.

Power supply unit

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This unit provides the required to the manipulator’s actuators Industrial robots make use of three types of drives . these are:Hydraulic drive: Pneumatic drive: Electric drive:

Hydraulic drive:

These are mostly used for driving high power robots as they can deliver large power while being relatively small in size.

Pneumatic drive:

This type of drive is used in smaller robots.these robots are often limited to pick and place operation with fast cycles.

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